The prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among HIV patients attending clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria
Introduction: Anaemia is one of the haematological complications of HIV, and most of the studies in Nigeria and outside Nigeria have shown prevalence above 50%. Also, anaemia in HIV patients has been shown to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Our study therefore aimed to determine the prevalence and the likely risk factors associated with the development of anaemia among HIV patients attending the special treatment clinic in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.
Methods: This was a cross – sectional study conducted over a period of 6 months from June to November, 2010. A total of 321 patients were recruited but only 300 met the inclusion criteria, and their haemoglobin levels were measured with the use of Drabkin Cyanide method. Data obtained was analyzed with SPSS version 20 with statistical significance at p < 0.05.
Results: There were more females than males in the study (70.0% vs 30.0%). Majority of the participants were in the 30 – 39 years age category (35.0%), closely followed by those in the 40 – 49 years age category (21.0%). The overall prevalence of anaemia was 76%. Female sex, living in an Urban Area and low CD4 cell count are risk factors that were associated with anaemia among HIV patients. However, in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex was the only predictor of anaemia .
Conclusion: Anaemia is a common complication seen among HIV patients in view of the prevalence rate of 76% observed in our study. The risk factors associated with anemia were female sex, living in urban area and low CD4 cell count.
Keywords: Anaemia, HIV, Prevalence, Risk factors, Nigeria