Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

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Morphological characteristics and classification of soils derived from diverse parent Materials in Central Cross River State, Nigeria

ME Nsor, IJ Ibanga


Variation in soil characteristics is usually a reflection of the difference in materials from which the soil was formed. This study sought to investigate the characteristics of soils formed on different parent materials with a view to classifying them. This study was carried out in selected soils derived from three major types of parent materials in central Cross River State, South Eastern Nigeria. A total of six (6) pedons were excavated, two (2) pedons in each of the identified parent materials. The parent materials were Sandstone-shale-siltstone intercalations. Basement complex and Basalt. The study indicated that soils derived from sandstone-shale-siltstone materials are characterized by ochric sandy loam and loamy sand epipedons with moderate medium sub-angular blocky structures. These soils are also light coloured with dominant hues of 7.5YR with hard to slightly hard and hard to very hard dry consistence at the surface and sub-soil respectively. Soils of basement complex are characterized by the possession of loamy sand epipedons with weak medium crumb and sub-angular blocky structures having predominantly dull yellowish brown and bright yellowish brown colours at the surface and sub-soils. The dry consistences of the surface soils are slightly hard while the sub-soils are hard to very hard. The Morphology of basaltic soils is characterized by sandy loam to clayed texture with strong medium to moderate medium sub-angular block structures. These soils are deep in effective depth and dark reddish brown in colour. Its dry consistence is usually hard to very hard to very hard. Soils of sandstone – shale-siltstone and basement complex origin are classified as Topic Tropustalfs while those of basalt origin are classified Topic Tropustults. Proper fertilization and irrigation programmes based on their inherent characteristics will make these soils more productive and enhance their potentials for sustainable agricultural use

Keywords: Parent materials, Soil Morphology and sustainability

Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 14 (3) 2008: pp. 271-278
AJOL African Journals Online