Phytochemical Composition And Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Struchium sparganophora (L) On Cockroach Crude Extract – Induced Airway Inflammatory Responses In Wistar Rats
Asthma, a chronic immune inflammatory disorder of the airways has been responsible for high mortality in both infants and adults in Africa and appropriate therapy has long been sought. Phytochemical composition and effect of aqueous extract of Struchium sparganophora on pulmonary inflammation induced in Wistar rat asthma model were studied. Pulmonary inflammation was induced in Wistar rats against appropriate controls with cockroach (Periplaneta americana) crude extract. Twenty-four hours after asthma induction treatment, S. spargonophora extract was administered by oral gavage to induced rats. The inflammatory responses and effect of the extract were assessed by analysis of leukocytes infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 12 hourly intervals. The aqueous extract of S. sparganophora contained alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, polyphenols, saponins, tannins etc. The aqueous extract significantly (p<0.001) reduced inflammation indices so that mean total leukocytes (X 106) of cockroach crude extract-induced rats administered with S. sparganophora aqueous extract were 5.7±0.18, 4.4±0.24, 3.4 ± 0.19 and 3.0 ± 0.31 respectively at the different times post aqueous extract administration. These values were significantly (P<0.001) lower compared with those in the placebo rats viz: 16.9±0.31, 15.0± 0.37, 15. 1± 0.87 and 14.4± 0.31. Similarly, mean percentages of neutrophils, lymphyocytes, and eosinophils in cockroach crude extract-induced rats administered with S. sparganophora crude extract were significantly (p<0.01) lower compared with means in cockroach crude extract-induced rats administered with distilled water (placebo). The reduction of inflammation in rats by S. sparganophora extract administration may be due to their phytochemical components. These are discussed in relation to their significance in asthma management.
Keywords: Phytochemical, S. sparganophora (L), inflammation, rats, asthma.
Global Journal or Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 14 (4) 2008: pp. 417-122