Anthropometric study of the cranial parameters using Computed Tomography (CT) scan to establish cephalic index of a sampled population in Calabar, Nigeria
Background: Ethnic characteristics of individuals are best described with the skull. Cranial index is one of the most important variables for determining sexual dimorphism and of course racial differences. Parameters used in establishing cephalic index vary considerably depending on the age, sex, geographical habitat, ethnic background of the individuals involved and the methods employed. Such has not been documented in Calabar, especially with the use of advanced imaging modality such as the Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This is the rationale of the study.
Objective: To determine the cephalic index of Nigerians residing in Calabar using CT scan.
Materials and Methods: A total of 200 cranial Brivo 385 16 slice CT scan images of Nigerians aged from 18 to 87 years were obtained from the Asi-Ukpo Diagnostic Medical Centre Calabar. A simple random probability sampling technique was employed. Variables measured were the Maximum Cranial Length (MCL), Maximum Cranial Width (MCW), Bizygomatic Length (BZL) and the Orbital Length (OBL). The cephalic index was obtained by measuring the ratio of the maximum head width (MCW) or the Biparietal Diameter (BPD) to maximum head length (MCL) or the antero-posterior diameter then multiplied by 100.
Results: Cranial length was 182.9 ± 0.657mm in males and 178.53 ± 0.09mm in females. Cranial width was 138.59 ± 0.56mm in males and 137.21 ± 0.65mm in females. The orbital length was 34.35 ± 0.31mm in males and 33.37 ± 0.29mm in females while bizygomatic length was 130 ± 0.31mm in males and 127.54 ± 0.84mm in females. Cranial index was 76.09mm in males and 75.81mm in females. No significant difference between males and females of the study population as the subject appears to be largely mesocephalic (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Cranial index of the study sampled population is majorly mesocephalic. Therefore, CT scan is very important a tool in the assessment of cranial parameters in anthropometry.
Keywords: Anthropometry, Calabar, Cranial index, Computed Tomography, Mesocephalic