The suitability of well water for domestic purpose, in Gwagwalada area council Abuja Nigeria

  • Ephraim Brigid Bassey
  • T. A. Ogah
  • J. I. Magaji
  • Oladeinde Olufemi Stephen
Keywords: Water quality, Heavy metals, Water pollution, Well


Water wells are usually dug by artisans who lack professional skills. Such wells are used at various homes in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja for domestic purpose, on the assumption that underground water is safe. Thus, the suitability of such well water was assessed. The objectives were to assess their properties and compare with regulatory standard for domestic purpose. Thirty (30) water samples were purposely collected from six wards (Dobi, Ibwa, Paikon-Kore, Tungan Maje, Zuba and Ikwa). Five water samples were randomly collected from each ward for laboratory analysis. Laboratory results were statistically analyzed using range, mean, correlation and multiple determination coefficients. Suitability of water properties for domestic purposes was determined by comparing range and mean values with NSDWQ and WHO standard for domestic uses. Result showed that the concentrations of water properties ranges as follows: temperature (26.59-30.73oC), pH (7.17-8.23), electrical conductivity EC (222-354 μs/cm3), TDS (12.14-21.54mg/l), Turbidity (0.29-0.93NTU) hardness (13.58-39.72mg/l), chloride Cl-(4.29-8.93mg/l), Fe (0.54-0.71mg/l) and Cu (0.02-0.06mg/l).Water samples generally had low electrical conductivity (222-354 μs/cm3), and mineral nutrients but elevated concentration of some heavy metals. The twenty- three water quality parameters tested could explain 96% of the overall water quality leaving only 4% unexplained. All the samples fell short of regulatory standard in terms of EC, Fe and Cu while well water from Ikwa fell short of many heavy metals for domestic purpose. It was concluded that well water in Gwagwalada Area Council are not potable. Thus, treatment before direct consumption and precautionary use of well water were recommended for the residents.

Keywords: Water quality, Heavy metals, Water pollution, Well


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eISSN: 1118-0579