Anti-Anaemic And Hepato–Renal Activities Of Ethanol Leaf Extract Of Alchornea Cordifolia In Phenyl Hydrazine Induced-Anaemic Wistar Rats
The effect of ethanol leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia on some biochemical parameters in phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemic Wistar rats was studied. A total of thirty-six (36) Wistar rats weighing 95-200 g were selected for this study and randomly divided into six groups of six animals per group. Group A (normal control), group B (negative or anaemic) control, group C (standard), group D, E and F (treated groups). Animals in groups B, C, D, E and F were induced with anaemia via intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection of 10mg/kg body weight phenyl hydrazine (PHZ) for 3 days and group A received distilled water in place of the PHZ for the same duration. After the induction, group A and B rats received oral administration 0.9w/v normal saline solution while groups C, D, E and F received oral administration of enzoron (10mg/kg.bwt), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg.bwt of extract respectively for 14 days. The percentage yield of the extract was determined to be 18%. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, protein, alkaloids, phytosterols, phynols, flavonoids and glycosides at varying concentrations.A dose of 5000mg/kg. bwt was found to be safe in the LD50 study of the extract. The oral administration of the extract showed a significantly (p<0.05) level of total protein (TP) ,packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBCs) of the animals in treated groups compared to those of the animals in anaemic groups.The aspartate transaminase (AST),alanine transaminase (ALT)and total bilirubin (TB)were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in the extract treated groups than in the anaemic non-treated groups. There was a no-significant decrease (p>0.05) in the serum urea, creatinine, Na+ ,K+ and ,Cl- of animals in the extract treated groups when compared to both the normal and standard control . The histology of the spleen revealed the regeneration of damaged cells in extract treated groups unlike that of the anaemic non-treated groups which showed distorted architecture. The study suggests that treatment with Achornea cordifolia leaf extract in phenyl hydrazine induced anaemia enhances anti- anaemic and hepatoprotective effect possibly due to both its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.