Total protein, albumin and globulin levels following the administration of activity directed fractions of Vernonia amygdalina during acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats

  • VS Ekam
  • EO Udosen
Keywords: Acetaminophen, vernonia amygdalina, hepatotoxicity, total protein, albumin, globulin

Abstract

The effect of treatment with activity directed fractions of Vernonia amygdalina during acetaminophen - induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats for 14 days was investigated. The 48 wistar albino rats used were divided into 8 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 served as the normal control group and received only distilled water. Group 2 served as paracetamol control group and received only paracetamol. Groups 3-8 were treated with acetaminophen and activity directed fractions of Vernonia amygdalina. The extracts were obtained by fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract using organic solvents of increasing polarities. Paracetamol was administered at a dose of 171.41mg/kg and the fractions of vernonia amygdalina at 200mg/kg. At the end of the treatment with fractions of benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, methanol and residue E produced varying results in the level of total protein, albumin and globulin. Results obtained shows a significant decrease (P<0.05) in total protein level (g/dl) in the paracetamol group (23.66±0.59) compared to the normal control group (45.00±1.73). The result also shows a significant increase(P<0.05)
in total protein (g/dl) in all group treated with the various fractions of vernonia amygdalina compared to the paracetamol group, with the group treated with residue E fraction having the highest protein level (g/dl) among all treatment groups (36.50±2.21). The present in vivo study has further demonstrated the hepatoprotective potential of this plant. In this study hepatocellular damage induced by acetaminophen intoxication in rats was established based on significant decrease (P<0.05) in total protein, globulin activities, and no significant decrease (P<0.05) in albumin
levels (g/dl) in paracetamol group (25.00±3.36) compared to the normal group (25.33±1.51) as found by previous workers. The albumin and globulin levels (g/dl) show insignificant decrease (P>0.05) in groups treated with fractions of vernonia amygdalina due to liver dysfunction. From the result significantly increased globulin levels (g/dl) in groups
treated with residue E, methanol, and chloroform as well as increased total protein levels in the residue E, methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol groups compared to the paracetamol group is indicative of the fact that the hepatoprotective principles of vernonia amygdalina may reside in these fractions.
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