Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences <p><em>Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences</em> is a multi-disciplinary specialist journal aimed at promoting research in Biological Science, Agricultural Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Medicine.</p><p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p><p class="MsoNormal"> </p>Articles are indexed on Chemical Abstracts(USA), CAB Abstracts (USA), Zoological Record (USA and African Geology (France). en-US © 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. (Prof Barth N Ekueme) (Prof Barth N Ekueme) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 09:40:26 +0000 OJS 60 Perception of farmers on the contribution of vegetables to livelihoods in Yakurr local government area, Cross River state, Nigeria <p>This study assessed the perception of farmers on the contribution of vegetables to livelihoods in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The study identified the socio-economic characteristics of farmers in the study area, perception of the contribution of vegetables to livelihoods and identified the factors affecting vegetable farming in the study area. Multi-stage sampling techniques were adopted in selecting 126 respondents for the study. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency, mean and ranks. The result of the study showed that majority (75.4%) of the respondents were females. Most of the farmers (41.3%) were aged between 36 and 45 years. Some (44.4%) were involved in the cultivation of only vegetables and had farm holdings of 1-2 hectares. Majority had monthly income of &lt;stike&gt;N&lt;/stike&gt;71,000.00 to &lt;stike&gt;N&lt;/stike&gt;90,000.00. The result of the type of vegetables grown by the respondents revealed that fluted pumpkin ranked 1st (x=2.68) while Utazi ranked 9th (x=1.93). Also the result of the perception of farmers on the contribution of vegetables to livelihoods of farmers showed that vegetables contributed to the income of respondents for training as fashion designers in the study area and were generally excellent. Factors affecting contribution of vegetables to livelihoods were inadequate land, inadequate finance, pests and diseases among others. Vegetables, therefore played a very important role in the livelihoods of farmers in the study area. The study concluded that vegetables are necessary for the improvement of livelihoods of farmers in Yakurr Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria.</p> J. B Effiong, C. L Aboh, C. F Aya Copyright (c) Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pectinolytic activity of aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus grown on grapefruit (citrus Parasidis) peel in solid state fermentation <p>The present study was aimed at studying pectinolytic activity of resident fungi isolated from decomposing grapefruit (Citrus parasidis) peels in solid state fermentation. Grape fruit peel was subjected to natural fermentation and the fermenting fungi were isolated, characterized and identified using standard microbiological methods. The isolated fungi were in turn used for fermentation to determine their pectinolytic activity through solid state fermentation technique. Culture parameters such as incubation period, temperature, moisture content and addition of salts supplements were optimized during the research for five days. The identified fungi were Aspergillus Niger and Aspergillus flavus. The peak of pectinolytic activity was at day three of fermentation when the highest pectinase activity of 13.32 μmol/mg/min was recorded for A. Niger and 11.32 μmol/mg/min for A. flavus. Optimum temperature and pH for pectinase activity by A. Niger and A. flavus was at 40 0C and pH 7.5 and 7.7 respectively. The use of salt supplemented substrate did not alter enzyme activity. In conclusion, the isolated fungi could be promising organisms for pectinolytic enzyme production on grape peel as substrate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;Grapefruit, Pectinolytic Activity, Fungi, Fermentation, Aspergillus</p> M. R. Adedayo, M. T Mohammed, A. E. Ajiboye, S. A Abdulmumini Copyright (c) Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular characterisation of fungi associated with sewage-impacted soil <p>The decay of faecal matter from a septic system causes the arousal of fungi in the surrounding soil. These fungi can cause diseases if there is sewage spillage containing untreated or improperly treated wastewaters. Molecular techniques of identification of fungi have shown to be more dependable than traditional methods of identifying fungal species. This study was carried out to identify the fungal species associated with soil obtained from sewage-impacted soil near a septic tank using both traditional cultural techniques and molecular method. Fungi associated with the soil samples were isolated using serial dilution and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) method. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) was extracted from the pure cultures of fungal isolates using Quick DNA Fungal/Bacterial Miniprep kit. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal isolates was carried out using universal primer pair; ITS4 and ITS5. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were blasted against National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. The result of the nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the identity of the isolates as <em>Trichoderma harzanium</em> with 580 base pairs and Aspergillus welwitschiae with 560 base pairs. Sequences of the isolates were aligned and compared with sequences on GenBank and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The cultural method only aided in suggesting the suspected genera of the isolates while the molecular method was able to identify the isolates to the species level. This study will promote the knowledge of the fungal species associated with sewage-impacted soil and also aid researchers in proffering ways to enhance the prevention/control of diseases associated with sewage spill.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Septic tank, fungi, soil, phylogeny, sequencing</p> N. G. Iyanyi, A. E. Ataga, E. A Obichi , S. C. Agbasoga Copyright (c) Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Durational exposure dependent effect of carbamate treated net on haematological indices in wistar rat <p>The present study was undertaken to investigate the duration of exposure dependent effect of carbamate treated net on haematological indices in Wistar rats. Eighteen (18) Wistar rats were used in this study and designated into three (3) study groups of six rats each. Group 1 was the control group while groups 2 and 3 constituted the experimental groups containing rats exposed to carbamate treated net for 30 and 60 days respectively. At the end of the exposure period, the animals were sacrificed and blood sample were removed for haematological analysis. The result of the study shows that there was a significant increase in the body weight of exposed rats compared to rats in the control group at (P&lt;0.05). Relative organ weight of the exposed rats increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) when compared to rats in the control group. The PCV, Hb, RBC’s, PLT, MCV, MCH, and MCHC levels all increased insignificantly in the exposed rats when compared to rats in the control group at (p&lt;0.05). The study also revealed that the total White Blood Cell (WBC) counts in the exposed groups was significantly elevated when compared to the control group at (P&lt;0.05). Finally, the result of the study shows a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in the levels of neutrophil of the exposed rats when compared with the control group, while the level of lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes increased insignificantly (p&gt;0.05) in rats exposed for 30 days but increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) in rats exposed for 60 days when compared to rats in their control group. Therefore, the observation from this study suggests that long-term exposure to carbamate treated net may alter the haematological indices and hence lead to various health problem.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Body Weight, Carbamate, Organs Weight and Heamatological Indices</p> R. U. Ukpanukpong, G. I. Ekpo, U. I. Aletan, P. O. Aigbadumah, P. I. Umoh Copyright (c) Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the mineral composition of proceessed cheese, soy and nunu milks consumed in Abuja and Keffi metropolises of Nigeria <p>Milk and its products are needed for proper body building. Processed cheese, <em>nunu</em> and soy milk consumed within Abuja and Keffi metropolises were analyzed for their mineral contents. X<sub>1</sub>, Y<sub>1</sub>, Z<sub>1</sub> represents soy milk, <em>nunu</em> and cheese from Abuja metropolis while X<sub>2</sub>, Y<sub>2</sub>, Z<sub>2</sub> represents sample from Keffi metropolis respectively. Calcium (265.53±0.25 mg/mL), iron (1.19±0.92 mg/mL), potassium (162.77±0.02 mg/mL) were found to be higher in cheese milk (Z<sub>1</sub>) from Abuja than that (225.82±0.13 mg/mL, 1.05±0.60mg/mL and 130.41±0.04 mg/mL) found in Keffi (Z<sub>2</sub>) examined respectively, though the amount of sodium present (151.0±0.08 mg/mL) in cheese (Z<sub>2</sub>) from Keffi is slightly higher than that (150.08±0.01 mg/mL) from Abuja (Z<sub>1</sub>). Also, Soya milk from Abuja (X<sub>1</sub>) had highest amount of zinc (0.76±0.00 mg/mL) while that of Keffi (X<sub>2</sub>) was 0.65±0.3 mg/mL, for magnesium and copper, higher values 18.40±010 mg/mL and 0.25±0.02 mg/mL were recorded for soy milk (X<sub>2</sub>) from Keffi while soy milk from Abuja (X<sub>1</sub>) had 17.97±0.20 mg/mL and 0.16±0.01 mg/mL respectively. Chromium was dictated in both cheese samples but not dictated in soya and <em>nunu</em> milks from both metropolises. It is seen from the investigation that cheese had more minerals followed by soya milk.<em> Nunu</em> milk sample had the least quantity of minerals; also all the samples analyzed have minerals present in them. Therefore, they are needed for the proper functioning of the body system</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Analysis, Concentration, Milk, Mineral, Metropolis, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy</p> M. U. Okpara, P. C. Madu, B. S Shuaibu, M. A., Ubana, J. Isah Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 2-dimensional modeling of high-resolution aeromagnetic data over Yola arm of the upper Benue trough, Northeastern Nigeria <p>2-D modeling of high-resolution aeromagnetic data over the area investigated was carried out with the aid of Oasis Montaj<sup>TM</sup> software in order to get the total magnetic intensity map as well as the residual map from where the modeling was carried out. The data was acquired for Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) in 2010 by Fugro international of Netherlands. The specifications of the data were terrain clearance of 80 m, flight line spacing of 500 m and a tie line spacing of 5000 m. The area investigated in this work is located between longitude 12<sup>0</sup> 00' - 13<sup>0</sup> 30' E and Latitude 8<sup>0</sup> 00' – 10<sup>0</sup> 00'N. GM-SYS module of the Oasis montaj was used for this research, with depocentres, structural patterns, basement geometry and morphology as well as estimates of the physical character of the cause to an investigated anomaly determined. The models reveal the horst and graben structures of the basement and the various faults that segmented the area into block patterns. The results revealed sediment thickness in the range of 2-5 km for the models which are in agreement with the results obtained by various researchers in the area. Horst and graben were identified in the models which confirmed the rifting nature of the Benue Trough. The authors of this research are of the view that these depocentres, structural patterns and basement geometry may be a promising site for hydrocarbon traps and reservoirs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aeromagnetic Data, GM-SYS, Modeling, Horst, Graben.</p> Musa Hayatudeen, Nsikak E. Bassey, Bello Rasaq Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The suitability of well water for domestic purpose, in Gwagwalada area council Abuja Nigeria <p>Water wells are usually dug by artisans who lack professional skills. Such wells are used at various homes in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja for domestic purpose, on the assumption that underground water is safe. Thus, the suitability of such well water was assessed. The objectives were to assess their properties and compare with regulatory standard for domestic purpose. Thirty (30) water samples were purposely collected from six wards (Dobi, Ibwa, Paikon-Kore, Tungan Maje, Zuba and Ikwa). Five water samples were randomly collected from each ward for laboratory analysis. Laboratory results were statistically analyzed using range, mean, correlation and multiple determination coefficients. Suitability of water properties for domestic purposes was determined by comparing range and mean values with NSDWQ and WHO standard for domestic uses. Result showed that the concentrations of water properties ranges as follows: temperature (26.59-30.73<sup>o</sup>C), pH (7.17-8.23), electrical conductivity EC (222-354 μs/cm<sup>3</sup>), TDS (12.14-21.54mg/l), Turbidity (0.29-0.93NTU) hardness (13.58-39.72mg/l), chloride Cl-(4.29-8.93mg/l), Fe (0.54-0.71mg/l) and Cu (0.02-0.06mg/l).Water samples generally had low electrical conductivity (222-354 μs/cm<sup>3</sup>), and mineral nutrients but elevated concentration of some heavy metals. The twenty- three water quality parameters tested could explain 96% of the overall water quality leaving only 4% unexplained. All the samples fell short of regulatory standard in terms of EC, Fe and Cu while well water from Ikwa fell short of many heavy metals for domestic purpose. It was concluded that well water in Gwagwalada Area Council are not potable. Thus, treatment before direct consumption and precautionary use of well water were recommended for the residents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Water quality, Heavy metals, Water pollution, Well</p> Ephraim Brigid Bassey, T. A. Ogah , J. I. Magaji , Oladeinde Olufemi Stephen Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the interval heat flow and thermal resistance at the Faltu-1 well, Borno basin, NE Nigeria <p>The heat flowing through horizons in the Faltu-1 well, Borno Basin, NE Nigeria was calculated from their thermal conductivities and geothermal gradients with the aim of determining whether or not it is uniform, and if not, the depths where it is diverted, and the possible heat diversion process. The interval heat flow was assessed to be non-uniform. While fluid convection is adjudged to be the major heat diversion mechanism within the Chad Formation with minor heat refraction, the reversed is adjudged to be the situation for the underlying Kerri Kerri Formaton within which increasing sand content with depth is also predicted, with the lower interval predicted to be the Gombe Formation. Patterns of disruptions to the vertical heat flow within the Fika Formation were inferred to suggest rhythmic bedding of shale and sand beds that could serve as both source and reservoir rocks. Magmatic intrusions that impacted the maturation of organic matter into oil and gas also provided necessary entrapment structures and possible migration pathways. The Gongila and Bima Formations each has single disruption of the heat flows that are attributed to refraction. In the case of the Gongila Formation, the disruption is between the early-deposited more sandy and laterdeposited more shaley lithologies in the marine transgression of the area, while in the case of the Bima, it is between the more shaley Upper and more sandy Middle Bima Formations. Analysis of the Bullard plots also revealed disruptions to the vertical heat flow that are attributed either to convecting fluids or to heat refraction and diffraction. Two such disrupting heat advections were identified within the Chad Formation with the first being attributed to convection, while the other is attributed to a combination of both. Two similar disruptions for the Kerri Kerri Formation were attributed largely to lithological variations with minor contributions from convection of fluids. While unable to discern the rhythmic bedding, the five disruptions of the Bullard plot for the Fika Formation and one each for the Gongila and Bima Formations were interpreted to indicate similar features inferred from interval heat flow plots.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Interval heat flow, heat convection, heat diffraction, thermal resistivity, shaliness</p> S. Ali, K. Mosto-Onuoha Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Performance evaluation of conventional exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and p-value cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart <p>This paper is aimed at comparing the performances of the conventional Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) and p-value Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control chart. These charts were applied in monitoring the outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis in Delta State University Teaching Hospital (DELSUTH), Oghara for a period of eighty four (84) calendar months. Line chart and histogram were plotted to test for stationary and normality of the data. Autocorrelation plot was also used to study the randomness of the data. The results of the control charts show that conventional EWMA chart detects shifts faster in monitoring process mean than the p-value CUSUM control chart.</p> <p><strong>Keywords and Phrases:</strong> Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA), p-value, Cumulative Sum (CUSUM), Autocorrelation, Randomness</p> O. Ikpotokin, J. O Braimah, H. E. Oboh Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 First horizontal and first vertical derivatives from high resolution aeromagnetic data over the Gongola basin upper Benue trough Northeastern Nigeria <p>High-resolution aeromagnetic data investigation was carried out over the Gongola basin upper Benue trough northeastern Nigeria. Total intensity magnetic map were processed to get the residual map, reduction to equator, polynomial fitting, radially average power spectrum (RAPS) were done, subsequently the first horizontal and first vertical derivatives of the data was carried out in order to identify linear structures (faults and fractures). The outcomes from both the horizontal and vertical derivatives give contact locations that are continuous, thin and show major structures in the NE-SW direction both in the maps and in the rose diagrams. The study focused on delineation of geological structures such as rock contacts; rock boundaries, fractures and faulted zones from the maps, they are principally important in mineral resources studies because many of these resources are located along fracture zones. Linear structures perceived in this kind of studies are also reliable indicators for geologic structures. The result of this work is also significant in identifying areas to be avoided when constructing bridges, dams as well as siting nuclear power plants and delineation of potential risk areas of natural hazard.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aeromagnetic Data, first Horizontal Derivative, first Vertical Derivatives, Gongola Basin, Linear Features.</p> Musa Hayatudeen, Bello Rasaq, Raheem I Onaolapo, Ayoola Olumide Abe Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing portfolio and asset returns of some financial and non- financial companies on the Ghana stock exchange using a 3-factor model <p>This study on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE), investigated, if the overall size of the market, affects the fundamentals of the Fama French 3-Factor model, and to ascertain if the Fama French model can be used effectively to assess portfolio and assets return for companies listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange. In this paper, portfolios of assets of companies on the Ghana Stock Exchange are constructed and analyzed using the Fama-French 3-factor model. The empirical data which consists of assets of 15 companies listed on the GSE, including assets of both financial and non-financial companies for good representation of the Ghana Stock Exchange. We found that the basic principle of the model is not satisfied. This is attributed to a number of factors which include overall size of the market, volume of trade, and high leverage (more debt than equity) associated with financial firms. High debt/equity ratio is linked to high risk.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Market Capitalization, Book-to-market ratio, Portfolio, Small minus big, High minus low</p> C.P. Ogbogbo, N. Anokye-Turkson Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of a 4-span continuous plate in one direction using Matlab programming <p>The present study presents a computer approach based on polynomial shape functions application for analysis of continuous plate in one direction using Matlab. A 4-span continuous plate in the x-direction comprises of boundary conditions SSSC, SCSC, SCSC and SCSS single panels’ plate was analyzed. It was assumed that, the external edges were simply supported while the internal edges of each panel were clamped. The bending moments of the clamped edges were calculated for each panel using appropriate boundary conditions which formed the fixed end moments (FEMs). Stiffness method was used based on beam analogy to analyze the continuous plate. Matlab codes were applied to develop a computer program for this analysis. To validate the results of this present study, the values of the moments obtained were compared with those of earlier studies using manual method. The percentage difference for fixed end moments were all 0.00% and that of support moments had the maximum value of 0.016%. Thus, it was concluded that the present study program based on Matlab is adequate and a faster approach for a 4-span continuous plate in one direction analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Matlab Programming, Continuous Plate, Polynomial Shape Functions, Beam Analogy, Fixed Edge Moment.</p> E. I. Adah, S. E Ubi, F. O. Idagu, P. A. Ubi Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of road safety parameters in the city of Kigali, Rwanda <p>Increase in vehicular population has led to increase in road crashes. This is particularly very evident in low- and middle-income countries. Rwanda is no exception to this problem. While various factors influence the occurrence of a crash, it is argued that road design can make roads either safe or unsafe to drive. This research examines geometric parameters of roads in the City of Kigali, with emphasis on checking their safety parameters in comparison with design standards of AASHTO 2011. The case study of this research was „KN 123 St‟, a two-lane asphalt road located in the center of the City of Kigali. Road parameters like lane widths, curve radii, super-elevation, sight distances and slope grades were examined. The research found various areas of improvement, inconsistencies and non-conformities. The findings established a clear relationship between ignored safety parameters during design and construction, and road crashes that happened on specifically identified hazardous spots. For instance, there is an extreme abrupt change in lane widths over the whole length at a rate of 74%. Unsafe sharp curves make half of all evaluated horizontal curves. Curves with the smallest radii have already recorded many crashes. The study found that super-elevation values have been inadequately computed, designed, and constructed with an average variance of 5%. About 80% of assessed vertical curves had insufficient stopping sight distance and 90% of headlight sight distance likewise. Apart from geometric parameters, high operating speeds of car drivers and motorcyclists, lack of shoulders, lack of zebra crossings and left sidewalk were found as extra causes of traffic injuries. While widening of the road could potentially help meet most safety parameters, it is arguably expensive and unrealistic. Therefore, this study recommends speed governance, forgiving roadside features, traffic signalization, and road markings as tools to alert drivers where most crash-prone areas are.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Road safety, Geometric design, Safety assessment, Road Crashes, AASHTO 2011</p> David Nkurunziza, Rahman Tafahomi, Irumva Augustin Faraja Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nurse-led training programme on knowledge about sexual violence among adolescent females in selected secondary schools, Abeokuta South local government area, Ogun state <p>Sexual violence is any unwanted sexual act that is perpetrated against someone’s willingness by a person known or unknown to the victim. Adolescent girls are at high risk of sexual violence due to their inadequate knowledge about sexual violence. This study aimed to determine the effect of nurse-led training programme on knowledge about sexual violence among adolescent females in secondary schools in Abeokuta South Local Government Area, Ogun State. This study adopted quasi-experimental design with two treatment groups forming the control and intervention groups using 109 adolescent female students from four selected secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. A draft of the instrument along with the objectives of the study, research questions were submitted for face and content validation. Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient was used to test for reliability, values of 0.70 and above were accepted and items that scored less were reframed. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as z-test were used to explore relationships between the nurse-led training and knowledge. The study results revealed a statistically significant difference (p&gt;000) between knowledge of adolescent female students, after the intervention. There is therefore need for periodic intervention programmes and awareness/enlightenment campaigns about sexual violence targeted at secondary school students.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adolescent, Knowledge, Nurse-led Intervention, Prevention, Sexual violence</p> Sobanjo Adeola Beatrice, Asonye Christian Chinedu, Sodimu Jeminat Omotade, Adekunbi A. Farotimi Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of crude aqueous leaves extract of <i>Bryophyllum Pinnatum</i> on antioxidant status, blood glucose, lipid profile, liver and renal function indices in albino rats <p><em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> is an important enthnomedicinal plant. The study assessed the effect of crude aqueous leaves extract of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> (CALEBP) on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), antioxidant status, lipid profile, liver and renal function indices in albino rats. The rats were housed under standard laboratory conditions (12h light: 12h dark photoperiod), 23± 2 ºC and were given rat pellets and tap water ad libitum. Twenty four rats weighing 190-232g were randomized into four groups (A-D) of six rats each. Group A (control) received normal feed and water only. Groups B, C and D received orally 180, 360 and 540 mg/kg body weight respectively of CALEBP for 28 days. Serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase, catalase, FPG, lipid profile, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, proteins, malondialdehyde, glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and electrolytes were assessed by standard methods. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant. Groups C and D had significantly lower FPG (p = 0.030; p = 0.01) and higher ALP (p = 0.01; p = 0.001) compared to the controls. Group D had significantly lower creatinine (p = 0.03) and K<sup>+</sup> (p = 0.02) compared to control. Group B, C and D had significantly lower GSH (p = 0.020, p = 0.000 and p = 0.000) while group B had significantly higher TAC (p = 0.04) compared to the controls. Dosage of extracts correlated positively with ALP (r = 0.705, p = 0.000) and negatively with FPG (r = -0.603, p = 0.002), K<sup>+</sup> (r = -0.563, p = 0.004), creatinine (r = -0.464, p = 0.022) and GSH (r = -0.786, p = 0.000). <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> aqueous leaves extract could lower blood glucose, potassium and creatinine&nbsp; levels and may increase ALP activity and GSH depletion in high doses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bryophyllum pinnatum, aqueous leaf extract, dosage, effect assessment, Albino rats</p> Iya Eze Bassey, Etido Fidelis Udo, Samson Oluwaseyi Adesite Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Reviewing the links between climate change and resource conflict <p>Knowledge of the relationship between climate change and resource conflict is paramount in resolving resource conflict between farmers and herdsmen in Nigeria. However, there is yet no general agreement on how climate change causes or influences resource conflict. Thus, a review of existing literature that link climate change and resource conflict was conducted for identification of the missing link. These were achieved through the review of literature published in the era of the recent global climate change from late 90s to date. Selections of papers were based on the topic and date of publication. Result showed that there is general agreement that climate change influence resource conflicts. Some of the authors agreed that climate change cannot cause resource conflict in isolation but through influences on other factors that affect resource availability, accessibility and utility. These factors are also influenced by policies and socio-cultural system. Thus, resource conflict may be a secondary or tertiary effect of climate change. Climate change solution is scares in literature that linked climate change and resource conflict. Thus, future studies should be focused on climate change solution to resource conflict.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Climate change, Resource conflict, Literature review, Famers</p> Abugu Nkechinyere Anthonia, Yero Ahmed Bello, Odele Muyiwa Oliatan, Irene Amahagbor Macaulay Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Review of paradigm shift in building consruction occasioned by climage change <p>The solution to climate change demands new strategies in building sector. Thus, a review of existing literature was conducted to find out the new thinking in building sector in relation to climate change. The objectives were to: examine the relationship between climate change and building construction; identify paradigm shifts in building policies as a response to climate change and to find out climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the building sector. These were achieved through the review of literature published in the era of the recent global climate change from late 90s to date. Selection of paper was based on relevancy to the topic and date of publication. Preference was given to papers that link climate change with building sector, especially those that portray paradigm shift. Result showed that there are strong link between climate change and the building sector. As all previous reports reviewed revealed that climate change adversely affect building, a good number also argued that building construction is responsible for climate change mainly in terms of energy use and surface transformation/exposure. Although, there seems to be conflicting ideas on cause and effects between climate change and building construction, there is a general agreement that climate change affects building sector. Scholars also agree on integration of climatic parameters in building sector. Climate change has become a basis for policy reform in the building sector as many studies recommended knowledge and inclusion of climatic parameters in building planning, design, construction and use. Mitigation and adaptation of buildings to flood and extreme temperature were the common concerns of most studies. Raising of floor, use of local materials, orientation of building in accordance to sun and wind direction are among the mitigation and adaptation options for building construction in the face of changing climate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Climate change, Building construction, paradigm shift, sustainability, climate adaptation</p> Abugu Nkechinyere Anthonia, Yero Ahmed Bello, Irene Amahagbor Macaulay, Odele Muyiwa Oliatan Copyright (c) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000