Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences <p><em>Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences</em> is a multi-disciplinary specialist journal aimed at promoting research in Biological Science, Agricultural Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Medicine.</p><p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p><p class="MsoNormal"> </p>Articles are indexed on Chemical Abstracts(USA), CAB Abstracts (USA), Zoological Record (USA and African Geology (France). en-US © 2018. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license. (Prof Barth N Ekueme) (Prof Barth N Ekueme) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 17:43:54 +0000 OJS 60 Bacteriological assessment of some frozen fishes sold at Ator market in Ikot Ekpene metropolis <p>This research was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of frozen fishes sold at Ator market in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State. Thirty fish samples from three species of fish were collected from different retailers at the market. Samples were prepared from the intestine the gills, and the skin. The microbial load of the different samples was determined using appropriate media. Total viable bacterial counts ranged between 3.02×10<sup>4</sup> to 52.0×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g, total coliforms ranged between 9.32×10<sup>4</sup> to 47.4×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g, total vibrio count ranged from 0.52×10<sup>4</sup> to 7.85×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g while the total<em> Staphylococcal</em> counts ranged from 2.08×10<sup>4</sup> to 7.75×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. It was observed from the study that the skin and the intestines harboured more bacteria growth than the gills. The microbial load obtained in this study exceeds the international acceptable limit of ≤ 1.0 × 10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g for frozen products thus indicating the poor sanitary and poor hygienic conditions of the markets where these fishes are sold or countries where they were imported, from. It is recommended that proper hygienic condition should be maintained during fish production, handling, storage, retailing and processing. Also, fish should be subjected to adequate cooking before consumption.</p> J. O. Ekanem, I. G. Udoma Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Meteorological influences on some melliferous plant species: nectar nutritional composition and honey yield in mangrove vegetation zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria <p>Meteorological influences on the nutritional composition of the nectar of selected melliferous plant species and impact on honey yield were studied for 36 months in the mangrove vegetation in Akwa Ibom state Nigeria. Nectar of selected melliferous plants was collected randomly for three years (2015-2017) and from the vegetation zone during dry and rainy seasons. Climatic factors such as Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature, Solar Radiation (mm), Mean Daily Evaporation (mm), Wind speed (ms-1) Rainfall (mm) and humidity) data of the study area were also recorded from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) station in Eket LGA. Samples were taken in the early and later stages of flowering and the plants selected for the study were Helicteres ixora, Musa paradisiaca, and Costus afer. Nectar was extracted from the flowers directly, using a 10 μl capillary tube from the floral cup of 200-3000 flowers of melliferous plants. Finding from this study showed higher concentrations of vitamins and sugar in the nectar of melliferous plant species in the dry season than in raining season suggesting a possible impact of high temperature and radiation on increased nectar production.</p> I.D. Uffia, C.O. Akachuku, O.E. Udofia, I.B. Nsien Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of boko haram insurgency on the nutritional status of two communities in Gulani Local Government Area, Yobe State, Nigeria <p>The Boko Haram insurgency has consistently posed a threat to the lives of residents in the North-East and national security in general. The insurgency has led to increased incidence of diseases, food insecurity, unemployment, violation of human rights, displacements and shelter problems among others. The study was designed to investigate the impact of boko haram insurgency on the nutritional status of two communities in Gulani Local Government Area, Yobe State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 391 respondents utilizing a simple random sampling technique. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information from respondents while anthropometric measurements of height and weight were carried out with the appropriate instruments. The analysed data was presented in descriptive of frequency, Tables and charts. Majority of the respondents were males 269(68.8%) and most 185(47.3%) were farmers. The mean height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 1.61±0.87, 62.60±14.93 and 22.39±4.70 respectively. The BMI classification shows that 50.5% of the respondents had normal weight, 25.4% had overweight and 19.2% were underweight. Similarly, majority of the respondents 227(70.8%) affirmed that the insurgency has affected the availability and quantity of staple foods, affected their ability of going to farms 169(61.0%) and led to increase in food prices 305(78.0%). Meanwhile, 142(36.3%) affirmed that they harvest 10-20 quantity (bags) of grains before the insurgency, which slightly decreased to 5-10 quantity (bags) of grains as affirmed by 135 (34.5%) of the respondents during the insurgency. The study shows the boko haram insurgency continues to pose serious challenges to farming activities, which has led to increased food prices as well as poor nutritional status of residents of the affected areas. Hence adequate measures must be put in place to mitigate the impact of the insurgency on residents of the affected areas.</p> Maina Musab, Agofure Otovwe Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Postbuckling behaviour of isotropic thin rectangular plates with one free edge <p>This work aims to evaluate the individual stiffness of six plates’ boundary conditions with one free edge to obtain the specific mathematical models for predicting the postbuckling loads of the six plates’ boundary conditions under consideration. The shape profiles of each of the six plates were differentiated and substituted into the individual stiffness integrals to obtain the numerical values of the individual stiffness. The individual stiffness values were then substituted into the total bending and membrane stiffness expressions and evaluated. The resulting total and membrane stiffness expressions were thereafter substituted into the general postbuckling equation and evaluated to obtain specific mathematical models for the six plate types to predict the postbuckling loads of each plate. The newly formulated mathematical models were validated by carrying out numerical predictions of the postbuckling loads of each plate. The critical load obtained was compared with those in the literature and was found adequate. Additionally, the results showed a gradual increase in the strength of plate beyond the initial yield point which is in line with the behavior of plates. Based on these observations it was concluded that the newly formulated mathematical models for predicting the postbuckling strength of thin isotropic rectangular plates considered here were adequate and that the models will provide an easy means of analyzing thin plates for postbuckling loads.</p> E.I. Adah, D.O. Onwuka , O.M. Ibearugbulem , S.E. Ubi , E.E. Nwigwe Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Orphometric and hydraulic geometry assessment of a gully in SE Nigeria <p>Gully erosion represents one of the most devastating form of land degradation in the Sedimentary Formations underlying south eastern Nigeria leading to both onsite and off- site adverse effects on the environment. In this paper, a surveyed section of a second-order gully located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, SE Nigeria is analyzed. Along the gully, 20 cross-sections were established and measured with a Rover GNSS and the Base GNSS. The sections were located at variable distances, placing them in areas where active erosion was evident. In total, 19 field measurements were carried out, and the geometric characteristics of 19 cross-sections were obtained. Morphometric analyses were carried out in 421m surveyed Udo Inwang segment of the 860m long main gully. The results indicated that Udo Inwang gully was a mature gully, measured gully depth varied from 1.1m to 29m, while the shoulder or top width ranged from 26m to 98m. It is worth noting that the bed width is typically narrow ranging from 4m to 33m wide. The cross-sectional profiles were indicative of U-shape to V- shape, all with very narrow bed width and steeply sloping gully sides, which are feature of gullies developed on very loose and incoherent soils that slumps/collapses on exposure. The total volume of soil lost from the watersheds was 480,376.26m3, which translated to 18,593.64 tons/ha and the average rate of soil loss has appeared to be 476.76 ton/ ha /year. The annual average growth rate of the gully length was 22m/year. Hence, the average growth rate of gullies in the study watershed with 22 m/ year-1 laid under catastrophic or destructive type of gully erosion.</p> Charles Udosen, Okon Ubom, Abasi-Ifreke Etok, Unyime Saturday Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of solid waste characterization in Keffi Iga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria in view of adopting biogas technology for solid waste management <p>The assessment of solid waste characterization in Keffi Local Government Area in view of adopting biogas technology for solid waste management was carried out. This was achieved through assessment of the quantity of solid waste generation and the composition (organic and inorganic) in the study area. Materials used for data collection are weighing scale and waste bins. Stratified and systematic samplings were used to select households for data collection. The selected households’ waste generation were observed and weighed on daily basis for one week and average weight was calculated for each household to quantify the amount of waste generation and composition. Solid waste generation per household per day in Keffi Local government area ranged from 0.9 Kg to 1.5Kg with mean value of 1.26Kg. There was a significant different (F&gt;P@0.05) in the quantity of solid waste generation among the ten wards. Though, solid wastes in Keffi consist of diverse materials from both raw materials mostly farm/animal residues and manufactured goods, it has higher organic (71.79%) than inorganic (28.21%) components. Thus, it was concluded that adoption of biogas technology for solid waste management in Keffi Local Government Area is feasible based on waste characterization of the area. Pilot demonstration of biogas production from organic waste was recommended</p> Abugu Nkechinyere Anthonia, Oladeinde Olufemi Stephen , Dada Ibilewa Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of factors influencing pharmaceutical sales workforce engagement in pharmaceutical marketing in Nigeria: a structural equation modeling approach <p>In the pharmaceutical sales and marketing industry, human capital in terms of the sales workforce is essential to&nbsp; organizational success. However, there is a need to ensure that the task-environment is adequately resourced. The application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques such as factor analysis is necessary to further understand the underlying relevance of these factors. The objective of the study was to explore the factors influencing pharmaceutical sales personnel's work engagement in pharmaceutical companies using factor analysis. A cross-sectional, qualitative research study used an 11-item literature-guided questionnaire administered online to 406 medical sales professionals in the pharmaceutical supply network in Nigeria using random sampling. The factors evaluated include regularity and impact of training,&nbsp; marketing support, job security as perceived by the employee, incentives, reward for performance, and the prospect of promotion. Others include; minimal work stress, improved career prospects, and an enabling work environment provided for employees involved in pharmaceutical sales operations. The questions were rated on a 3-point Likert scale of 1=fair, 3=poor, and 5=good, to&nbsp; evaluate respondents’ estimation of factors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was executed on the dataset and thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the dataset using SPSS AMOS. Statistical significance was set at p-value &lt; 0.05. The majority of respondents were male (72.2%, 293) and female (27.8%, 113). Respondents from Indigenous firms were predominant (249, 61.3%) compared to Multinational firms (157, 38.7%). There were 289 (71.2%) non-pharmacists and 117 (28.8%) pharmacists. EFA measures of adequacy were satisfactory (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0.878, Goodness-of-fit=0.023, Cronbach alpha=0.859, Total variance explained= 51.6%) and produced a 2-factor solution consisting of 9-items (work factors=6, implied factors=3). CFA solution from EFA output produced satisfactory fit estimates (RMSEA=0.044, CMIN/DF=1.787, GF1=0.977, AGFI=0.957, RMR=0.029, and TLI=0.981). The final model had acceptable convergent and discriminant validity values. Job security was considered as the most influential factor (regression coefficient=0.859) and the least was work-life balance (regression coefficient=0.559). The study provided a validated tool to evaluate the pharmaceutical sales workforce’s estimation of the key factors influencing job performance. This serves as an operational template for strategic managers in pharmaceutical companies to improve employee’s perception of management support.</p> Theophilus Ehidiamen Oamen Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of serum uric acid concentration on ultrasound scanned pregnant women in Calabar, Nigeria <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To evaluate the effect of serum uric acid elevation on the fetus and to determine the existence of a connection between hyperuricemia and gestational hyperten sion (pre-eclampsia).<br><strong>Materials and method</strong>: A prospective cross-sectional case-controlled ultrasound scan study was done on 200 singleton pregnant women between 20 to 40 weeks gestational age in a 12-month period. The age range for the cases and control were from 15 to 39 years. Uric acid concentration in the serum obtained from all the women was analyzed utilizing manual colorimetric method. Pearson’s correlation and the student t-tests were used to analyze the data obtained.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Maternal serum uric acid had negative correlation with fetal heart rate (FHR) (p = 0.025) and a positive correlation with estimated gestational age (EGA) (p = 0.040) including estimated fetal weight EFW (p = 0.046). A significant positive correlation between uric acid and proteinuria (p = 0.009) was observed. Uric acid was higher in pre-eclamptics than gestational hypertensives (8.528±2.679 mg/dl versus 6.542±1.746 mg/dl, p = 0.016). Also, uric acid in pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) was higher than the normotensives (7.535±2.165 mg/dl versus 5.437±1.636 mg/dl).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Maternal hyperuricemia predisposes to fetal bradycardia which may have possibly led to the two fetal demise recorded in the present study. Increased EFW with hyperuricemia may be due to higher body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Therefore, high serum uric acid has a significant role in foretelling the appearance of preeclampsia but not gestational hypertension.</p> Samuel Archibong Efanga, Akintunde Olusijibomi Akintomide, Henry Chima Okpara, Samson Omini Paulinus Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Aqueous beetroot dye as an alternative to haematoxylin and eosin in the diagnosis of breast tumours <p>Breast tumours are heterogeneous diseases that result from changes in the cells and connective tissues of the breast. Different histological and histochemical stains have been employed to aid in the detection of these changes in routine diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of aqueous beetroot dye in the histochemical staining of breast tumours. Thirty breast tumour blocks from the Histopathology Laboratory of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar were retrieved, sectioned and stained with Cole’s haematoxylin and eosin and aqueous beetroot. The histological staining and 3-D image characteristics were analysed. The histological types of breast tumours were 7(23.3%) benign, of which 5(16.7%) were grade II benign lesion, 1(3.3%) was fibrocystic disease and 1(3.3%) was fibroadenoma. Among the 23(76.7%) malignant tumours, 15(56.7%) were grade 3, 3(10%) were B4 carcinomas and 3(10%) were B5 types. The sections stained with the red beetroot dye gave distinct metachromatic staining of the connective tissues of the cell membranes of the epithelial cells and other connective tissue cells, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, basement membrane, and collagen fibres of the stroma in shades of green, purple, and black. The histological staining and 3-D image characteristics of the beetroot-stained benign and malignant tumours were similar to the haematoxylin and eosin-stained counterparts in terms of nuclear, cytoplasmic and connective tissue staining, 3-D surface plot features, and histological details (χ2=1.200; p=0.549). This finding has shown that betalain pigments in beetroot dye gave good metachromatic staining of epithelial and connective tissue changes in breast tumours. Beetroot dye and 3-D surface plots when combined can serve as a cost effective, health and environment-friendly alternative staining method to routine haematoxylin and eosin in diagnosis of breast tumours in low resource areas.</p> Mfoniso Udonkang, Collins Ene, Anietie Archibong, Agala Egbe, Imeobong Inyang Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of GIS in modelling real time population exposure to PM2.5 <p>Air pollution has caused many deaths globally across all age groups with most of the deaths attributed to PM2.5 which is an extremely small sized particulate matter that can travels deep in to the lungs, hit the blood stream and affect the respiratory track. This study has estimated Southampton spatiotemporal population exposure to air pollution using the Surface builder (SB) 24/7 model and a modelled air pollution data from DEFRA with a specific focus on the variation in the level of exposure to PM 2.5 by different population age groups, using GIS. After modeling the population exposure the resulted map was resampled to 200m by 200m to match the spatial resolution of the output population distribution model. The result shows that only few areas around the southern parts of the study areas (mostly residential areas with low commercial activities) have low concentration of PM2.5 pollutant. The results further identified a significant variation in the level of exposure by different population age groups with the population age group between the age of 18 to 64 (non-students) having the highest level of exposure at both 2am (55% of the exposed population) and 2pm (52%). On the other hand, the age group with the lowest level of exposure (2%), at both times of the day, is 16 to 17 years of age. 18 to 64 years old students in higher education (HE) and people of over 65 years of age are second subgroups highly exposed while the remaining age groups (0 to 4, 5 to 9, 10 to 15) show almost similar exposure (5 to 6%) in both times of the day. Overall, there is an incredible difference in exposure to PM2.5 by different age groups which reflects the level of spatial interaction by each age group.</p> Zubairu Mohammad, Jabir Abubakar Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000