PAH Quantification and Estimated Carcinogenic Risks at Selected Fuel Stations in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana
The research aim was to quantify PAHs levels and assess their associated carcinogenic health risks in fuel filling stations located in both high and low vehicular traffic areas in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Dust particles were collected from ten fuel filling stations and extracted using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). PAH analysis was conducted using a GC-MS system. Cancer risk assessment was done using the Incremental Life-time Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. The average PAH concentration recorded in the high and low vehicular traffic areas were 158,080±102,650 μg/kg and 370,220±218,140 μg/kg respectively. Benzo(a)Anthracene was the most occurring PAH congener recorded in both traffic areas. Dermal contact as a route of PAH exposure recorded the highest potential cancer risk for both adults and children. Amongst the fuel filling stations, Gab Energy recorded the highest carcinogenic risks of 2.50 (adults) and 2.67 (children). In all, the average cancer risk values for adults (1.02) was slightly higher than that of the children (9.26E-01) with no significant difference. The mean ƩILCR values for both populations indicated a high to very high potential carcinogenic risk to the people living or working in and around the study areas.
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