Assessment of trace metal contamination by geochemical normalisation in sediments of two lagoons: A comparative study of the Kpeshie and Muni lagoons, Ghana
Heavy metal contamination status of bottom sediments of two lagoons was compared by the employment of Enrichment Factor (EF) analysis for Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Cupper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Silver (Ag), Zinc (Zn) and Mercury (Hg). Kpeshie Lagoon recorded enrichment (EF ≥ 1) for Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg and Zn, whilst Muni Lagoon recorded enrichment for Cd, Mn, Ag, Hg and Zn as metals of anthropogenic influence. Kpeshie, situated in a highly urbanized area, has 75% spatial distribution of Pb enrichment. The assessment shows that Ag and Hg are the most enriched metals in the sediments of both Lagoons, reaching extremely severe levels. Only Mn showed statistically significant difference in mean concentration of metals for both Lagoons. Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Pb had a strong relation with Ag, Hg and Zn (r = 0.956; p < 0.05) which is significant in Kpeshie. It also had a strong association with Ag and Hg but not with Zn (r = 0.240) in the Muni. The study clearly delineates Pb as a pollutant that designates the urban status of Kpeshie. Its associated metals; Ag, Hg and Zn which may be coming from a common source are from industrialized zones.
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