Ghana Journal of Science <p>The <em>GHANA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE</em> is published by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Ghana. It is open to all papers of scientific and technological nature from Ghana and elsewhere, irrespective of the organization to which the authors belong. The topics need not be related to West Africa.</p> Accra: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Ghana en-US Ghana Journal of Science 0016-9544 <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p><p>This journal content is licensed under a <a class="subfoot" href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license</a>.</p> Morphological and morphometric features of the common rustgill mushroom (<i>Gymnopilus penetrans</i>, (Fr; Fr) Murray) in Ghana <p>A novel mushroom in the genus <em>Gymnopilus </em>was observed in the rainy season (June – November 2022) in the Adenta Municipality of the Greater Accra Region, on a pile of dry wood earmarked for firewood. The fruiting body produced prolific basidiospores akin to the order Agaricales of the gilled mushrooms. The fruiting body was small to medium in size and was solitary in small groups, appearing cream to brown in colour and later turning rusty with age. The stipe was solid tapering towards the attachment and was 4.5 - 7.0 cm long and cylindrical in diameter (0.6 – 1.2 cm). The pileus was 5.0 – 9.0 cm in diameter, convex to applanate, silky growth with a central depression. Its orange, brown colour without scales compared favourable with reported 4.0 – 8.0 diameter for G. penetrans. The gills were adnate, crowded to radiate, yellow to golden brown in colour. The basidiospores were golden brown to rusty brown colour, ellipsoidal in shape (6.0 - 9.0 μm x 3.0 – 5.0 μm) akin to what obtains in the taxonomic records for <em>G. penetrans </em>(7.0- 9.0 μm x 4.0 – 5.5 μm). The reported biologically active components found in this mushroom are discussed and the use of the compounds for pharmaceutical and medical therapy are highlighted.</p> G. T. Odamtten M. Wiafe-Kwagyan J. Addo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 49 55 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.6 Soursop botany, chemical composition and medicinal prospects: a concise review <p>Soursop (<em>Annona muricata </em>L.) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is reported to have the largest fruit in the genus, <em>Annona</em>. It is best known as “sawasop” in Nigerian vernacular. It is a fruit tree that was in almost every home garden in time past. The need for space, urbanization, inadequate knowledge about the fruit tree potentials, economic relevance and/or preference, has led to its fast eroding out of the urban and semi-urban areas, with relatively fewer stands, compared to decades ago.Soursop has been reported to originate from the American tropics but has been successfully introduced and domesticated around the world. Several past and current researches have been aimed at revealing the medicinal potential and other properties of soursop. Hitherto, the reported ethnomedicinal properties of soursop include but not restricted to analgesic, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antiulcer, antiviral, anti-arthritic, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-rheumatic, anti-stress, immune enhancing, as well as wound healing capacity. This review highlights a brief description of the botany, chemical composition and the burgeoning need for the utilization of soursop based on its inherent medicinal properties.</p> E. A. Omere A. U. Osaigbovo A. T. Adekunle Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 56 67 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.7 Implications of socio-cultural practices on fisheries management: a case of the bottom-set gillnet fishery in the central region of Ghana <p>The study was conducted to examine the effect of some socio-cultural practices on fisheries management in Ghana. A case study was done on the bottom set gillnet fishery at Apam and Egyaa No.1 in the Central Region of Ghana. Data were collected through field observations and interviews. The study revealed that male children in fishing communities in Ghana were introduced to fishing at younger ages to ensure continuation of the family trade. Fishing partnership systems practiced had the potential to cause underestimation of fishing effort, while exceptions to the fishing holiday practiced in Ghana served as a loophole for violation of the taboo. Some socio-cultural practices hinder the success of some fisheries management strategies. The study recommended that natural resource managers should understand the objectives of the socio-cultural practices of resource users to guide them in the development of their management strategies. Also, alternative livelihood programmes aimed at reducing fishing effort should target the younger age group in fishing households as well, to expose them to other livelihood choices other than fishing. Again, estimation of fishing effort in Ghanaian marine small-scale fisheries should be based on number of fishing gears to ensure reliable estimates.<br><br><br></p> M. Y. Ameworwor J. Aggrey-Fynn M. N. K. Clottey Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 41 48 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.5 Adsorption performance of groundnut and sheanut shells biochars in ternary system of toxic metals <p>The choice of biomass is influenced by its availability, potential characteristics such as abundance of functional groups and large surface area. This study explored the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solution using groundnut and sheanut shells biochars. Groundnut and sheanut shells biochars pyrolysed at 350 ± 5ºC and 700 ± 5°C and used to remove lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in ternary systems. Initial toxic metal concentrations and residual concentrations after the biochars application were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The adsorption efficiency of groundnut and sheanut shells biochars pyrolysed at 350 ± 5ºC and 700 ± 5°C in the ternary system ranged from 81.28% to 100% for lead, cadmium ranged from 43.66% to 100% and mercury ranged from 96.38% to 100%. The higher removal rates of Pb, Cd and Hg by the biochars showed the pH solutions were favourable for the adsorption. Langmuir isotherm was the model that best fit the adsorption of toxic metal ions. Groundnut and sheanut shells biochars qualify as a feasible and economic option for toxic metals removal. Hence, studies should be conducted in real polluted water to ascertain the actual effectiveness of these biochar treatments.</p> A. B. Duwiejuah A.-H. Abubakari Y. Amadu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 1 13 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.1 Phenology, morphological, and anatomical characteristics of a stinkhorn mushroom in Ghana <p>The genus <em>Phallus </em>is a member of the group commonly known as stinkhorn fungi belonging to the family: Phallaceae and Order: Phallales. They are distributed in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas but are rarely reported in Ghana. During the recent minor rainy season (September-December 2022) an undocumented member of the Phallales was found in a rock garden located in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. The subterranean basidioma developed from an egg-like structure, single or gregarious with a thick gelatinous peridium. The primordium was oval/spherical, or ellipsoidal in shape; initially hypogeous becoming epigeous in the habit by maturity; is 4.0-5.0 cm in diameter, creamy to grayish cream with age. Within 48-72 h, the egg broke to expose the pink-colored stalk, sponge, or reticulate with rounded greyish-dark green cap carrying smooth-walled slimy ellipsoidal basidiospores (2 - 5μm) with a <em>fetid</em> rotten smell. Within 2 - 4 h of the emergence of cap, it was depleted of the ellipsoidal spores by foraging bluish-green bottle flies. The transverse section of the columnar stipe (5.0 - 8.0 cm long) showed a hollow orifice serving as the passage of basidiospores in the glebal mass. Occasionally, there was a division of the stipe at the cap to show two distinct stipes and caps from the same volva of the basidioma. The pileus was campanulate (bell-shaped), 2-3cm high dark green in color with vertical granular markings, and rounded to hemispheric in shape. Dark-green basidiospores besmear the cap with slimy glebal mass. These descriptions agree with no known penis-shaped morphology of the <em>Phallus </em>species with a prominent basal volva 2.0 - 3.5 cm high.</p> G. T. Odamtten M. Wiafe-Kwagyan N. K. Kortei Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 14 24 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.2 Factors influencing the health seeking behaviour of persons who have diabetes in the Kumasi metropolis <p>&nbsp;Inappropriate Health Seeking Behavior has been linked to worse health outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality rates and poorer health statistics of a country. This study therefore sought to identify the factors that influence the health seeking behavior of persons with diabetes in the Kumasi Metropolis. This study employed a cross-sectional study design and a quantitative approach. Convenience sampling method was used to select 120 participants. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data collected was analyzed using, frequency tables, multiple linear regression and chi square using STATA. About 79% of the participants were females with a majority belonging to the Akan ethnic group. The findings suggested that more than 80% of persons with diabetes in the Kumasi Metropolis are consumers of the Government healthcare facilities). Statistically significant values were recorded health-seeking behaviors at government health facilities and occupation (t = -2.74, p = 0.007) and also with age (t = -2.19, p = 0.03). The chi square analysis showed a relationship between Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity and the usage of government healthcare facilities.</p> V. Asante B. B. Gariba E. Appiah-Brempong H. L. Sarpong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 25 33 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.3 Phytochemicals and biological activities of <i>Tetrapleura tetraptera</i> seed extracts <p><em>Tetrapleura tetraptera, </em>also known commonly as Prekese or Aidan fruit in Ghana and Nigeria, respectively, is noted for its use in herbal preparations. The fruit in particular is employed as an ingredient in traditional medicine and as a spice across West-Africa. The seed, which forms part of the fruit, is discarded together with the spent fruit. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition as well as the biological activity of the hexane and ethanol extracts of the prekese seed. Our investigation revealed that the extracts contained valuable secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and glycosides. All extracts exhibited mild to good levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The ethanol extract had a better biological activity compared to the hexane extract. The biological activities of both the hexane and ethanol extracts were lower compared to those of ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole.</p> <p> </p> J. Korang J. O. Owusu-Asante S. Ibrahim E. Ofori J. Owusu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-24 2023-07-24 64 1 34 40 10.4314/gjs.v64i1.4