Global Journal of Social Sciences <p><em>Global Journal of Social Sciences</em> is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Sociology, Anthropology, Management Sciences, Geography, Regional Planning etc.</p> <p>Visit the Global Journal Series website here: <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>© Bachudo Science Co. Ltd. This work is licensed under the creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license.</p> (Prof. Barth N. Ekwueme) (Prof. Eucharia N. Nwagbara) Sat, 13 May 2023 20:25:27 +0000 OJS 60 Pension reform act 2014 and the future of public service prospective seniors: a prognostic analysis <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The study examined the Pension Reform Act of 2014 in relation to the future of public service prospective seniors in Nigeria. The study analysed the contents of the Act to point out its effects on the life-after retirement of prospective seniors presently in public service. The study utilized the qualitative desk research method and secondary method was utilized to source for data. The study found that timely remittance of pension deduction; investment of pension fund etc, have been put in place by government to achieve the Act’s objectives. The study concluded that the proper implementation of the Act will positively affect the future of public service prospective seniors. The study thus recommended that all stakeholders should be sincere, cooperative and dedicated in their dealings towards the successful achievement of the Act’s objectives</p> Ughulu Eghoikhunu Stella, Uwamusi Cordelia Beauty Copyright (c) 0 Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Health care financing and services utilization in cross river state, nigeria <p>The average annual budgetary allocation for health in Nigeria is about the lowest in Africa at 5.7% as the total health expenditure is only 0.7% of GDP against the WHO recommended 4%-5%. The out-of-pocket spending by Nigerians is more than 60% of total health expenditure instead of WHO recommended 30-40%, while the national coverage of the National Health Insurance is below 5% which poses a serious problem to health care service utilization. In Nigeria, the ever rising socioeconomic costs of healthcare and the limited or complete lack of supportive public financing is a major challenge to the attainment of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) recently adopted to reduce poverty and improve the wellbeing of all citizens of the world. This paper examined health care financing in Cross River State and determined the extent to which it poses problems to services utilization. The paper reviewed literature relevant to the study while the Marxist conflict theory of healthcare utilization was employed. The design for the paper was Expost facto which relied on secondary data from Cross River State Ministry of Health. The study reviewed various sources of health care financing in Cross River State and the impact of these sources on health care system strengthening or quality health care provision. From the study or discourse and review of health expenditure and its related challenges, it was found out that, out-of -pocket expenditure or user-fee charges, community-based financing, private donor agencies financing and tax-based public health financing sources in the state have not significantly impacted on good services provision to individuals. From these findings, it was recommended among others that government should encourage the establishment of village/ward development committees whose responsibilities should include taking initiative to assist government in building health post (in communities where such do not exist), Government should maintain existing health facilities and provide proper logistics during health campaigns and monitoring of health workers activities at the health facilities.</p> Archibong E P, Ogana J F, Edet A F, Enamhe D C Copyright (c) 0 Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies for effective savings mobilisation: a case study of selected savings institutions in calabar agricultural zone, cross river state, nigeria <p>This study examined strategies for effective savings mobilization in Calabar agricultural zone of Cross River state, Nigeria. It specifically sought to identify the, strategies for mobilizing savings, factors influencing savings mobilization and constraints to savings mobilization. The study used a purposive sampling technique to select 20 formal savings institutions in 3 LGAs out of 7 that were in the study area. Data obtained from primary source using structured questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics measures such as frequency counts, percentages and tables as well as inferential statistics such as multiple regression analysis<sup>.</sup> The result of the analysis showed that the most common saving strategy used by formal institution were advert and promotion (36.1%). Instruments like agric. saving scheme and children’s education were used to mobilize savings. Four variables were significant for determinant of savings mobilized, and these were, age of the institution, minimum amount required to open an account, value of institution asset and number of savers. Illiteracy and distrust of saving institutions were the major constraints in mobilizing savings. Therefore, savings institutions should improve on their services so as to attract more savers.</p> AJAH E A, ENIANG S V Copyright (c) 0 Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Book review <p>In his usual characteristic manner, the author of this book Barth N. Ekwueme, erudite Professor of Mineralogy and Petrology, has written yet another though-provoking literary piece. This current book is a compendium of highlights of homilies he listened to over a period of time as a committed Catholic faithful. The book consists of seven broad lessons viz:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol> <li>Lessons from Advent (4)</li> <li>Lessons from the season of Christmas (4)</li> <li>Lesson from the season of Lent (12)</li> <li>Lesson from the season of Easter (11)</li> <li>Lessons from ordinary Time (16)</li> <li>Lessons from Special Feasts (19)</li> <li>Lessons from Important Events (6)</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eucharia N Nwagbara, Barth N Ekwueme Copyright (c) 0 Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness information of respondents’ in effurun towards recycling of household solid waste <p>Recycling practice by households is relatively important as one of the treatments that can reduce the amount of waste that goes to incineration or landfills, and it is important contribution to the economy and the environment. Recycling practice is not common among many households in Nigeria but the knowledge of recycling is known by many. This study examines information awareness on recycling practice among households in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Effurun, a commercial town in Delta State, to determine households’ knowledge of the concept of recycling and how information awareness on recycling had helped households. Using the instrument of questionnaire for data collection, sixty-four (64) households were randomly contacted in the study area. Results obtained showed that awareness knowledge on recycling practice was largely from schools and from personal sources not the mass media. Recycling practice is largely done by streets scavengers in Nigeria for commercial purpose while many households recycled for environmental reasons. As part of sustainable environmental development, there is need therefore for media recycling awareness.</p> Akpoghiran Idamah Patrick Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 United nations development programme (undp) and poverty alleviation in cross river state north senatorial district, nigeria <p>The study examined the contributions of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) towards poverty reduction in Cross River State North Senatorial District, Nigeria. Hypothetically, the study stated that there is no significant relationship between UNDP infrastructural development, economic empowerment and poverty alleviation. Survey research design was adopted for this study. Data for testing the hypotheses were generated using a 15-item questionnaire entitled “United Nations Development Programmes and Poverty Alleviation Questionnaire” (UNDPPAQ). Data were collected from 764 respondents in two local government areas, through simple random sampling techniques. The generated data were statistically tested using One-way ANOVA. The test of hypotheses revealed that there is significant relationship between UNDP infrastructural development (motorable roads, energy generation, and water supply) and poverty alleviation. UNDP economic empowerment (agricultural loan, credit facilities, provision of fertilizers) significantly relate to poverty alleviation. It was concluded that United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) are important instrument for tackling poverty in Cross River North senatorial district. The study recommended that: poverty reduction strategy in Nigeria should focus more on educating the poor through capacity building, training, and skill acquisition. Economic policies of government should be geared towards job creation. In addition, special attention should be given to the needs of the marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable segments of the population including women towards their empowerment and self-sufficiency.</p> Ogar James Ajor, Abayomi Akintola, John Thompson Okpa Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Generosity, gender role beliefs, and neighborhood cohesion as predictors of marital satisfaction among public servants in addis ababa, ethiopia <p>This study examined generosity, gender role beliefs, and neighborhood cohesion as predictors of marital satisfaction. A descriptive-correlational design was employed to investigate this study. One hundred eighty seven participants were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques, and the data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Data was collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that marital satisfaction was significantly and positively associated with generosity and egalitarian gender role beliefs. Besides, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that generosity and egalitarian gender role beliefs were the main positive predictors of marital satisfaction. Furthermore, this study indicated that gender role beliefs moderated the relationship between generosity and marital satisfaction and the relationship between marital satisfaction and neighborhood cohesion. In addition to these, neighborhood cohesion also moderated the relationships between generosity and marital satisfaction. It is recommended that counselors and social workers should work on enhancing their clients’ quality of generosity. Practitioners should also educate couples to develop an attitude of equality in their involvement in household responsibility. Finally, it also recommended that creating supportive neighborhood environments might be beneficial.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shimelis Wondimu, Tamirie Andualem Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Agrarian women development engagement and socio-economic wellbeing of inhabitants of odukpani local government area in cross river state, nigeria. <p>Agrarian women are active agents of economic and social change and environmental protection who are in many ways and to various degrees. The study investigated agrarian women development engagement and socio-economic wellbeing of inhabitants of Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were: to examine the relationship between women sustainable food system efforts and socio-economic wellbeing; to determine the association between rural women entrepreneurship promotion and socio-economic wellbeing. The study adopted the Endogenous Development Model. The research design adopted was the qualitative and quantitative approaches of survey. Data were collected from 400 respondents selected through multi-stage sampling techniques from communities in Odukpani Local Government Area. The generated data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and Chi-square. The tested hypotheses revealed that agrarian women development alternative in sustainable food security is significantly related with household wellbeing among inhabitants of Odukpani communities. The other key finding of the study was that a significant association exists between entrepreneurship promotion and improved income among inhabitants of Odukpani communities. Agrarian women development engagement are significant predictors of socio-economic wellbeing in terms of reduction in rural poverty, self-sufficiency, adequate nutrition, improved household income, etc. The key recommendations were that agriculture ensures food security and it is a means of guaranteeing rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing. Since rural women have made immense contributions in food security, supportive infrastructural policies and programmes should be a priority of government at all levels.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Bassey G E, Ugal B U, Bukie F B, Nkpoyen F F Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role Of Infrastructure In The Socio-Economic Development Of Cross River State, Nigeria <p>The role of infrastructure in the socio-economic development of Cross River State was examined in this study for the period 1998-2020 using the ordinary least square method. Expenditure on health, education, and transport were used as measures of infrastructure and the gross state product per capita as a proxy for socio-economic progress. The period taken was due to data availability, and the methodology was adopted because of its best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) property. The descriptive statistics of the variables showed that the means and standard deviations were relatively small (i.e., all less than ten except for GSPC), which points to the stability of the variables and thus can be relied upon for the regression analysis. The regression result revealed that the public expenditure on health (HEC had a direct and significant relationship with the gross state product per capita (GSPC), while expenditure on transport had an inverse and significant relationship with GSPC. This implies that expenditure on health has the potential to improve the well-being of the people.&nbsp; The study recommended that the transition from the release of public funds to the implementation of the projects for which the funds were meant must be strengthened to ensure that the expected dividends of public expenses on infrastructure are enjoyed in the form of better socio-economic progress.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ihuoma Chikulirim Eke, Felix Awara Eke, Chukwuedo Susan Oburota Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mediating role of health literacy on the relationship between educational level and contraceptive use among older women in university of nigeria nsukka, enugu state, nigeria <p>The issue of contraceptive use in Nigeria is still poor and has not reversed to an extent as it has been in other countries of sub-Sahara Africa, thus underscoring the importance of research investigating factors that moderate contraceptive use. In this current study, we investigated the mediating role of health literacy on the relationship between educational level and contraceptive use among older women in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN).A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the moderating role of health literacy on contraceptive use among older women at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Chinese version of Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) was used to describe the health literacy profile of women and collect general information on older women in the university. Data were collected by researchers through face-to-face interviews. The 220 participants were selected using a convenient sampling method which is inexpensive and with fewer rules to follow. This allowed us to select participants that were easily accessible within the four faculties. The study employed a survey logistic regression which showed that there was a significant relationship between health literacy and contraceptive use. Education was not significantly related to contraceptive use buthealth literacy plays an important role in contraceptive use among older women in this high, minority population of women&nbsp;at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.. Health literacy mediated the relationship between educational level and contraceptive use, showing that the association between educational level and contraceptive use was transmitted through health literacy. Educational interventions can help to increase the knowledge of available contraceptive methods and to use contraception more effectively.</p> Ngwu Christopher N, Abonyi Sunday E Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Does women participation in governance reduce corruption and income inequality? Empirical investigation from nigeria. <p>The study examined if women's participation in governance reduces corruption and strengthen governance efficiency in Nigeria using annual data from 2000-2019. The study was conducted following a three-step regression model where the percentage of women's participation in parliament and gender parity was chosen as moderating variables. The study observed that corruption harmed governance efficiency given the limited participation of women in parliament. The study further observed that increasing women participation in governance has the remote effect of reducing level of corruption in Nigeria as well as reducing income disparity in the economy. The study concludes that increasing women's participation in parliament should not only be encouraged for the sake of obtaining gender equality in parliament but because such participation has positive externalities - enhancing governance efficiency, increase per capita income, and reducing the negative impact of corruption on the economy. The study suggested that the government should pass a mandatory legislative bill that will specify a gender-neutral quota for women's participation in the parliament and other spheres of political activism.</p> Hodo B Riman, Monica Lebo, Obeten Ude, Emmanuel S Akpan Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A qualitative study of factors influencing marital satisfaction among individuals in addis ababa <p>This study explored the factors that influence marital satisfaction among individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The research utilized focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with a sample size of 21 participants. The data revealed a range of important positive factors that are perceived to contribute to marital satisfaction. These include beliefs in the sacredness of marriage and family, the power of virtues in marital relationships, the neighborhood as a safe haven and source of strength, and self-disclosure. Practitioners are recommended to emphasize the positive aspects of marital relationships in order to maintain or enhance marital satisfaction. The interventions intended to enhance marital satisfaction should include both individual and external factors that aim to improve marital satisfaction.</p> Shimelis Wondimu, Tamirie Andualem Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Systematic Analysis Of The Security And Economic Implications Of Migration And Regional Conflict In West Africa <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The study analyses the security and economic implications of migration and regional conflict in west Africa. Although this issue has rarely been tackled in official or academic fora, it mirrors the author's interest that in an age of globalization, migration and insecurity are two inextricably woven issues that have remained a major threat to the sovereignty of states in the West African region. This has dire consequences for the security and stability of the region at large. The paper observes that climate change and environmental factors, food crises, refugee flow, poverty, and unemployment, are major causes of migration. The paper employed a comprehensive desk review methods that depends on the analysis of secondary data sources. Finally, the paper concludes that the desire to improve one's material existence and achieve more secure and meaningful lives drives people to move and construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct their social relations. To tackle the problem of immigration the paper recommended that the root causes of immigration, such as poverty, violence, and lack of economic opportunities in the home countries should be addressed. This will require foreign aid, diplomatic efforts, and cooperation with international organizations to address issues of poverty, lack of economic opportunities that drive people to leave their home countries for greener pastures.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Theophilus Oyime Adejumo, Alagh Terhile, Chinyere Helen Dede, Sunday Betembiaye Abunimye, Stella Oreme Odey, Gambo Yakubu Chiwar Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 09 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Urban Landuse And Generation Of Solid Waste In Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria <p>Despite various policies and agencies used by the government for waste management purpose, our streets continue to be littered with various solid wastes especially during raining periods while our gutters have been blocked due to various waste dumps in it. The author of this research conceptualized that efficient waste management can be archived only if the sources of waste can be identified, hence this study. This study was meant to identify various land uses, their associated wastes as well as, to test whether there are statistical differences on waste generated by the various land use systems in the study area. The study was a survey study, hence data were collected through questionnaire using a sample of 542 respondents comprising of respondents from all the identified landuse systems used in the study. Descriptive statistics was used to identify the various land uses and types of wastes associated with them, while inferential statistics of ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study at .05 level of significance. The various land uses found in the study were; commercial, agriculture, constructional and demolition, industrial, recreation, residential and transport. Various wastes generated by these landuses were also identify through percentage of responses among which included waste paper, metals; condemned tires, newspapers, concrete materials etc. ANOVA table shows a statistical significant difference among the waste generated by various land uses and the post hoc test specify groups with significant difference. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that careful assessment should be made apriori to determine which land use is proposed for a given urban space to ensure proper planning</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bassey John Bassey Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 09 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Social Capital And Vulnerable Children: The Relationships Of Multiple Social Contexts With Emotional And Behavioral Adjustment In Addis Ababa <p>Child vulnerability has been escalating in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conversely, most African societies, including Ethiopia, have untapped social capital resources rooted in social norms and cultural values that can potentially shield the wellbeing of vulnerable children. Thus, this study aims to uncover the contributions of social capital embedded in families, peers and neighborhoods for the emotional and behavioral adjustment of vulnerable children. The sample consisted of 248 vulnerable children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The family, peer and neighborhood social capitals were assessed by family social capital, peer social capital and neighborhood social capital scales respectively. Finally, emotional and behavioral adjustment was measured by Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The data were analyzed using Pearson- product moment correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The findings indicated that family and peer social capitals were negatively associated with the emotional and behavioral difficulties and positively with the pro-social behavior of participants. Moreover, the variables jointly explained 24% and 10.2% of the variances of emotional and behavioral difficulties, and pro-social behavior respectively. The result also underpins that higher social capital in peers and families are related with lower emotional and behavioral difficulties, and higher pro-social behavior of vulnerable children. In conclusion, social capitals in families, peers and neighborhoods are found to restrain emotional and behavioral difficulties and improve pro-social behaviors among vulnerable children. Thus, future studies are needed to fully understand the resources underlying in different social contexts and their contribution for vulnerable children wellbeing in countries like Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Simachew Ayalew, Tamirie Andualem Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 09 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000