Ghana Mining Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm <p>The Ghana Mining Journal (GMJ) is a publication which focuses on the exchange of ideas, dissemination of information and promotion of knowledge arising out of research pertinent to the effective and sustainable exploitation of mineral resources in Ghana and elsewhere. Original contributions in the following broad areas are suitable for publication in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://gmj.umat.edu.gh/ojs/index.php/gmj" href="http://gmj.umat.edu.gh/ojs/index.php/gmj" target="_blank">http://gmj.umat.edu.gh/ojs/index.php/gmj</a></p> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal's owner – University of Mines &amp; Technology dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh (Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah) jerry_kuma@yahoo.co.uk (Prof. J. S. Kuma) Wed, 21 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Comparative Analysis of Stockpile Volume Estimation using UAV and GPS Techniques https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211025 <p>Mining operations involve the extraction of minerals of economic value from the earth. In surface mining operations, overburdens need to be stripped in other to reach the ore. Large volumes of waste as well as ore is stripped in the process. Various technologies have been used to aid in stockpile volume estimation. Notable among them are the Total Stations and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). However, labour, safety and time has challenged the use of these technologies. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), commonly known as drone is an emerging technology for stockpile volume computations in the Mine. UAV technology for data collection is less labour intensive, safer and faster. Therefore, this study applied the UAV technology in an open pit to estimate stockpile volumes from a Mine. For the purpose of this study, GPS and UAV data were collected for measuring stockpile volumes of materials mined. The actual volumes of stockpiles A, B, C, D (Case 2), produced differences of 0.05% for A, 0.05% for B, 0.08% for C, 0.07% for D and 0.03% for A, -0.03% for B, 0.03% for C and 0.04% for D, for the GPS-based and the UAV-based techniques, respectively. The GPS-based technique generated moderate accuracies for volume estimation, but was time consuming and labour intensive, compared to the UAV-based technique; which was faster and less labour intensive. The UAV-based technique was the most accurate, safest and is capable of mapping large areas rapidly. It is therefore recommended that UAV survey be incorporated in stockpile volume estimation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>UAV, GPS, Stockpile, Mine, Total Stations</p> S. Mantey , M. S. Aduah Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211025 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Land Management Problems in the Mining Communities of Tarkwa, Ghana -A Look at Boundary Markers and Resurveys https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211027 <p>Boundary resurveys have become necessary in most mining communities of Ghana, especially, Tarkwa and its environs due to pressure and alteration in land use and land cover by mining operations. Most of the boundary markers (pillars, trees, streams, hills, valleys, footpaths, etc.) used in the past have been destroyed by mining and other associated activities. This has led to many disputes about ground boundaries and ownership of land tracts in the area. To curb the incidences of such conflicts, it has become important to have more reliable and scientific demarcations and surveys of the old boundaries and owners of land tracts in the area for registration, using modern technologies in land surveying. Equipment and methods used over a century ago to mark and describe land boundaries in the area have become obsolete now, and modern equipment and methods, while capable of measuring to very high precisions, cannot automatically give or tell the right boundaries and owners of land tracts established centuries ago. This paper examines the land boundaries situation in the study area, the impacts of mining on this, the need for boundary retracement surveys, the challenges that the rampant destruction of boundary markers in mining communities pose to such resurveys, and offers suggestions on dealing with these challenges in the management of land in the area.&nbsp; It also provides helpful information to land owners, land ‘buyers’ and land surveyors on the effects of the boundary problems on land transactions, surveys and registration in mining areas.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Surface Mining, Boundary Markers, Retracement Surveys, Land Conflicts, Management</p> E. A. A. Kwesi, O. Simpson, J. K. Lawerty, A. Mends, C. Assencher , P. E. Baffoe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211027 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Multivariate Statistical Evaluation of Geochemical Data from Quartz Vein-Associated Gold Mineralisation at the Badukrom Prospect within the Tarkwaian Base https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211030 <p>The Kawere conglomerate at the base of the Tarkwaian Group in the Iduapriem Mine appears to show good prospect for hydrothermal gold mineralisation evidenced by major structures mapped from magnetic and Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical data. Detailed geological mapping and sampling at Badukrom target which lies within the Kawere rocks confirm the presence of multiple structures as well as quartz veins indicative of potential hydrothermal gold mineralisation. Follow up soil sampling conducted within the area revealed a strong anomalous trend from the southern portion. Two diamond drilled (DD) holes pushed to delineate the extent of the anomalous zones returned narrow veins of significant gold intersections. Twenty-five (25) samples of the Badukrom hydrothermal Au mineralisation intersects were sent for analysis to ascertain the optimum pathfinder element suite for the hydrothermal targets within the Iduapriem concession. A total of fifty-nine elements were analysed via ICP-MS and ICP-OES. Multivariate statistical evaluation was carried out on the results to understand the geochemical associations of Au and the other elements to aid future exploration programmes planned for the hydrothermal targets. Multivariate analysis of the geochemical data using Pearson product-moment of correlation suggests a stronger positive correlation of gold with Iron, Antimony, Sulphur, Chromium, Vanadium respectively. However, the Spearman Rank correlation data indicates that, the optimum pathfinder elements for hydrothermal Au are: As, Sb and Te.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tarkwaian Base, Statistical Evaluation, Hydrothermal Mineralisation, Geochemical Data</p> K. P. Osei, M. Affam, C. Kusi-Manu , D. T. Kwapong Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211030 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Ore Grade Estimation Methods for Structurally Controlled Vein Deposits - A Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211032 <p>Resource estimation techniques have upgraded over the past couple of years, thereby improving resource estimates. The classical method of estimation is less used in ore grade estimation than geostatistics (kriging) which proved to provide more accurate estimates by its ability to account for the geology of the deposit and assess error. Geostatistics has therefore been said to be superior over the classical methods of estimation. However, due to the complexity of using geostatistics in resource estimation, its time-consuming nature, the susceptibility to errors due to human interference, the difficulty in applying it to deposits with few data points and the difficulty in using it to estimate complicated deposits paved the way for the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to be applied in ore grade estimation. AI techniques have been employed in diverse ore deposit types for the past two decades and have proven to provide comparable or better results than those estimated with kriging. This research aimed to review and compare the most commonly used kriging methods and AI techniques in ore grade estimation of complex structurally controlled vein deposits. The review showed that AI techniques outperformed kriging methods in ore grade estimation of vein deposits.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, Geostatistics, Kriging, Mineral Resource, Grade</p> C. A. Abuntori, S. Al-Hassan , D. Mireku-Gyimah Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211032 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Split Desktop Image Analysis and Kuz-Ram Empirical Model for Evaluation of Blast Fragmentation Efficiency in a Typical Granite Quarry https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211038 <p>Evaluation of fragmentation efficiency is an integral aspect of blasting operation. This study therefore assesses the efficiency of fragmentation size at Eminent granite quarry, Ibadan, Nigeria using Split Desktop software and Kuz-Ram empirical model. Five muckpiles of blasted rocks with the same blast design were analysed. The muckpile images were captured using smart high precision digital camera and uploaded into computer for Split Desktop analysis. The results of the fragment size distribution obtained from Kuz-Ram vary slightly with that of the Split Desktop but follow similar trend. The average values of F<sub>80</sub> and F<sub>90 </sub>from the Split Desktop image analysis were 90.96 cm and 98.24 cm respectively. The Kuz-Ram model values for F<sub>80</sub> and F<sub>90 </sub>were 88.52 cm and 92.95 cm respectively. The results of the Split Desktop were compared to the results obtained from the Kuz-Ram experiential model. The findings showed that the results obtained from Kuz-Ram empirical model were in conformity with the results from the Split Desktop software based on empirical relationship. Hence, the model is good for preliminary evaluation of blast design.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Blasting, Particle Size Distribution, Split Desktop Software, Muckpile, Fragmentation Indicator</p> K. A. Idowu, B. M. Olaleye , M. A. Saliu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211038 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Health Risk Levels of TSP and PM10 in the Mining Town of Tarkwa, Ghana https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211040 <p>Particulate matter (PM) varies significantly in space and time. Effective PM risk analysis requires adequate knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of PM. In order to understand TSP/PM<sub>10</sub> variability within the microclimate of Tarkwa and their potential impact. The Spatio-temporal distribution of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) and PM<sub>10</sub> in Tarkwa was studied. Five years TSP and PM<sub>10</sub> monthly concentration data from fifteen (15) monitoring stations were collected and analysed for Spatio-temporal characteristics within the suburbs around three mining companies in Tarkwa. Autocorrelation between neighbouring suburbs, attainment rate, particle size distribution and risk levels were evaluated. The results revealed that all the monitoring stations except two (stations NV and TN) recorded TSP and PM<sub>10</sub> concentrations below the national guideline for all years of study. Geo-spatially, highest TSP and PM<sub>10</sub> risk level were recorded East of Tarkwa. Inhalable particles constitute about 44.09-72.90% of TSP. Attainment values between 44.09%-100% and 30%-100% were recorded for TSP and PM<sub>10,</sub> respectively. Estimated AQI values ranged between good and unhealthy for sensitive groups. Future studies directed at the chemical composition of PM was recommended to enhance further understanding of the risk levels.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Particulate Matter, Attainment Rate, Air Pollution, Trends, Particle Size Distribution</p> F. Krampah, N. Amegbey , S. Ndur Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211040 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Chronic Illness Among Aged Population in Ghana: A Multinomial Logit Approach https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211064 <p>Generally, the constant change in demographic trends among the aged depict gradual increase in the size of the aged population globally. The aged population is often capitalised with degenerative conditions such as chronic illness which affect their ability to function effectively and often require special support. Despite the increase in the size of the aged population and their associated degenerative conditions, very few descriptive studies on the determinants of chronic illness among the aged has been researched especially in developing countries such as Ghana and there is no compelling evidence on the association of chronic illness and its determinants. Thus, this study seeks to analyse and predict the impact of age, gender, education, marital status, Quality of Life (QoL), social cohesion, settlement and depression on chronic illness among the aged population in Ghana. From the studies a Multinomial Logit Regression (MLR) was employed to analyse the data obtained from the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) under, Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2012. It was revealed that out of the 1384 sampled, 71% had no chronic illness whilst 22% and 7% had one and two or more chronic illness respectively. Again, it was observed that, Depression State, Gender, Marital Status and Settlement Type (rural or urban) play significant roles in determining the likelihood of the aged getting chronic illness while Physical Function, Social Cohesion, QoL, Age and Education Level were not statistically significant determinants of chronic illness. Our findings demonstrate that chronic illness among the aged is constantly increasing in Ghana especially in the urban communities and need to be addressed urgently through governmental policies and programs in the quest to help salvage the deteriorating conditions of the aged.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Aged Population, Multinomial Logit Model, Chronic Illness</p> C. C. Nyarko, K. Agyarko, P. K. Nyarko , L. Brew Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gm/article/view/211064 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000