Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) in some sites in Accra, Ghana
Background: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease.
Objective: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti in some sites in Accra, Ghana.
Design: Larval surveys were carried to inspect containers within households and estimate larval indices and adult Aedes mosquitoes were collected using human landing collection technique. WHO tube assays was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes.
Results: Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species, 75.5% and followed by Ae. vittatus, 23.9 %. Ae. albopictus and Ae. granti were in smaller numbers. Household index (HI), Breteau index (BI), and container index were calculated as 8.2%, 11.2% and 10.3% respectively with man-vector contact rate of 0.67 bites/man-hour estimated for the area. The mortalities recorded for Ae. aegypti from WHO tube assays was 88%, 94%, 80% and 99% for DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) respectively.
Conclusion: The survey results indicated that the density of Aedes mosquitoes was considered to be sufficient to promote an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fevers on Legon Campus. Aedes mosquitoes were found to be resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and lamdacyhalothrin, but susceptible to permethrin.
Funding: This study was supported in part by Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases
Keywords: Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, insecticide, risk, VHF transmission, Ghana