Ghana Medical Journal

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Long-term continuous administration of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L) Gaertn in male Sprague-Dawley rats: biochemical, haematological and histopathological changes

Patrick Amoateng, Samuel Adjei, Dorcas Osei-Safo, Believe Ahedor, Seidu A Mahmood, Benoit B N’guessan, Isaac J Asiedu-Gyekye, Alexander K Nyarko


Background: Conflicting reports about the toxicity of Synedrella nodiflora (L) Gaertn (family Asteraceae), a plant traditionally used in Ghana for the management of epilepsy, abound in literature. The present study evaluates the effect of a 90-day continuous oral administration of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract of Synedrella nodiflora (SNE) in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Methods: The toxicological evaluation of the extract (100, 300 and 1000 mgkg-1) was focused on haematological, serum biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of some isolated organs.

Results: The extract produced no mortality in the rats treated during the study period. Only SNE 100 mgkg-1 produced significant decrease in white blood cell and neutrophil counts and an increase in albumin, globulin, total bilirubin, total protein and potassium levels. The higher doses (SNE 300 and 1000 mgkg-1) had no significant effect on all the haematological and biochemical parameters measured. Histopathological assessment of the liver, kidney and heart revealed no abnormalities in rats treated with the extracts. Only the SNE 1000 mgkg-1 produced distortions of the branching arrangements of the myocardial fibres and a congested vessel which indicates a healed infarction.

Conclusions: The findings suggest hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L) Gaertn generally has a low toxicity profile following a 90-day continuous oral administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats under the present laboratory conditions. However patients with renal or cardiac problems should use the plant with caution.

Funding: Jointly supported by the International Foundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden, through a grant (# F/5191-1) to Dr. Patrick Amoateng and the Office of Research, Innovation and Development (ORID), University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, grant awarded to Dr. Patrick Amoateng (reference number: URF/6/ILG-002/2012-2013)

Keywords: : Synedrella nodiflora, Sprague-Dawley rats, histopathological, haematological

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