Burden, psychological well-being and quality of life of caregivers of end stage renal disease patients
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients play an important role in the management of the patients. Their psychological needs are often overlooked and unmet by the managing team. This study assessed the psychosocial well-being and quality of life (QoL) of caregivers of CKD patients in two hospitals in Southern Nigeria.
METHODS: Burden of caregiving, QoL, depression, and anxiety were assessed using standardized instruments; modified Zarit questionnaire, modified SF-12 questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) respectively among caregivers of CKD patients on maintenance haemodialysis and controls.
RESULTS: Fifty-seven caregivers of CKD patients and aged and sex-matched controls participated in the study.
Anxiety was significantly higher in caregivers compared to control (31.6% vs 5.3%, p = 0.004). Also, depression was significantly higher in caregivers (31.6% vs 3.5%, p= <0.001). Twenty-eight (49.1%) of the caregivers had mild to moderate burden and 19 (33.3%) had a high burden. The mean Zarit burden score was higher in female caregivers compared to male caregivers (18.30±8.11 vs 14.83±6.70, p = 0.09). The mean depression score was higher in female caregivers compared to male caregivers (8.58±3.83 vs 6.75±3.80, p= 0.08). There was significant positive correlation between Zarit burden and hospital anxiety score (r = 0.539, p= < 0.001) and depression score (r = 0.472, p = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and burden were common among caregivers of CKD patients especially females compared to controls. Supportive interventions for these caregivers should be included in treatment guidelines in order to improve overall patients’ outcome.
Keywords: caregiver, chronic kidney disease, burden, anxiety, depression