Prevalence and correlates of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Delta State, Nigeria: a cross-sectional community-based study
Background: There are indications that prehypertension precedes hypertension. Like hypertension, it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
Objective: To determine the prevalence, awareness and correlates of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Delta State, Nigeria.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We recruited adults aged ≥18 years from two communities in Delta State, Nigeria, using the multi-stage sampling technique. The study instrument was a modified WHO-STEPS questionnaire.
Prehypertension and hypertension were defined using the JNC-7 criteria. Ethical approval was obtained before the recruitment of participants.
Results: Of the 852 adults studied, the mean (±SD) age was 42.64 (±16.07) years, females (55.9%) and urban dwellers (55.8%). The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 42.5% and 29.3%, respectively; both were higher
among urban dwellers. The peak age-group for prehypertension and hypertension were 25-34 and 35-44 years, respectively. Awareness of hypertension was low; 12.0% (102/852). Blood pressure category significantly correlated
with age, body mass index, place of residence, level of education, employment status and fruit intake.
Conclusion: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in this study were high. Based on the premise that prehypertension is a precursor of hypertension and occurred more among youths, the higher prevalence of prehypertension
gives an inkling to rising prevalence of hypertension.
Keywords: Prehypertension, hypertension, adults, Nigeria, WHO STEPS
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