Ghana Medical Journal <p><em>The Ghana Medical Journal</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Ghana Medical Association. It was established in 1962 It publishes quality manuscripts in in all aspects of health, health care and the medical sciences. The full text of published articles are available online at this website and at African Journals Online ( AJOL) and PubMed Central ( PMC).</p><p>The Ghana Medical Journal is indexed in Medline, African Journals Online (AJOL), African Index Medicus, Scopus, EBSCO</p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Ghana Medical Association en-US Ghana Medical Journal 0016-9560 <p>Articles published in the Ghana Medical Journal may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publishers. Request for consent for reproduction of material published in the Ghana Medical Journal should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief. The publisher of this Journal reserves the right of copyright of all articles published in the Journal. It should also be understood by all authors that articles approved for publication in the journal are also deemed for publication online by the publisher.</p><p><span>Ghana Medical Journal is an Open Access journal and applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on the Creative Commons website ( to articles and other content published in the Journal.</span></p> Anxiety, depression, and stress in caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders in Ghana and implications for medication adherence <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed levels of anxiety, depression, and stress among family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders in Ghana and the implication on medication adherence.<br><strong>Design</strong>: A cross-sectional study.<br><strong>Setting</strong>: The study was conducted at the outpatient departments of the three main public psychiatric hospitals in Ghana.<br><strong>Participants</strong>: Two hundred and ten non-paid family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders were recruited for this study.<br><strong>Main Outcome Measure</strong>: The study assessed symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress among the caregivers and estimated caregiver-reported medication adherence.<br><strong>Results</strong>: About 56.2%, 66.2% and 78% of the caregivers experienced severe anxiety, severe depression and moderate to severe stress symptoms respectively. From the multiple logistic regression model, while anxiety was significantly affected by religion and education, depression was influenced by sex, age, marital status, proximity to facility, and employment status. Female caregivers had about four times higher odds of being depressed compared to male caregivers<br>(aOR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.66 - 8.75). The caregiver-reported medication adherence was 11.9%. Anxiety was significantly predictive of medication adherence.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Most family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental disorders experienced symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress with anxiety having implications for medication adherence. The study findings underscore the need to consider psychological characteristics of caregivers and the provision of mental health support for them, as part of the routine health care for children and adolescents with mental disorders.</p> Patience M.E. Ocansey Irene A. Kretchy Genevieve C. Aryeetey Kofi Agyabeng Justice Nonvignon Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 173 182 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.1 Association between serum chlamydial antibody levels and tubal infertility in tertiary health facility in South-East Nigeria: a case-control study <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study evaluates the association between genital Chlamydial infection and tubal factor infertility in a tertiary health facility in South-East Nigeria.<br><strong>Design</strong>: This was a case-control analytical study.<br><strong>Setting</strong>: Gynaecology Clinic and Maternity Unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.<br><strong>Participants</strong>: Ninety-six (96) women with confirmed tubal factor infertility served as the cases, and 96 women with normal intra-uterine pregnancy matched in age served as the control.<br><strong>Data Collection/Intervention</strong>: A structured questionnaire was used to extract information on the sociodemographic data and the sexual history of the participants. About 2mls of blood was collected, the blood was allowed to clot, and the sera were used for the test.<br><strong>Statistical analysis/Main outcome measure</strong>: Pearson Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, likelihood ratio and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine risk associations and identify factors independently related to tubal factor infertility. P-value &lt; 0.05 was considered significant.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The sociodemographic characteristics of both cases and control did not differ (P = 0.975). The Chlamydial antibody seropositivity was significantly higher in the cases than the control 78(81.2%) versus 13(13.5%) respectively {(P &lt; 0.001; OR (95% CI) = 27.7(12.7-60.2)}. Only lower abdominal pain {(P = 0.011); OR (95% CI) = 4.3(1.4-13.3)}; was independently associated with tubal factor infertility.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Tubal factor infertility is strongly associated with chlamydial IgG antibodies, and a history of lower abdominal pain significantly predicted tubal factor infertility.</p> Augustine D. Onyeabochukwu Emmanuel O. Izuka Onyema A. Onyegbule Chiemeka C. Onumajuru Uchenna T. Ejelonu Chukwunonyerem P. Duke-Onyeabo Chinelo E. Obiora-Izuka Uchenna I. Nwagha Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 183 189 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.2 Breast cancer treatment and outcomes at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study sought to determine the presentation, treatment and outcomes of breast cancer among women in Cape Coast, Ghana.<br><strong>Design</strong>: Retrospective medical record review<br><strong>Setting</strong>: Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana<br><strong>Participants</strong>: Female breast cancer patients<br><strong>Interventions</strong>: None<br><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: Proportion of female breast cancer patients presenting with advanced disease.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Approximately 84% of women had a primary presentation of breast cancer, with metastatic disease present in 34% of patients. Surgical management mainly involved partial mastectomy (21.7%) and total mastectomy (78.6%), with the most common postoperative complications being surgical site infections (3.8%). Non-surgical management involved chemotherapy, radiation therapy and anti-estrogen therapy, with Stage 3 and 4 patients twofold more likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy than earlier stages (OR= 2.0 95% CI (1.4, 3.0, p&lt;0.001). Grade 1 cancers were diagnosed in 11.0%, Grade 2 in 43.8%, and Grade 3 in 45.2%. The mean cancer size was 6.5 centimetres (range 1.5 to 20.0). Lymphatic vascular invasion was present in 59/125 (47.2%), estrogen receptor status was positive in 32.6%, progesterone receptors were positive in 22.1%, and Her-2/neu was positive in 32.6%. Triple-negative breast cancer was identified in 41/89 (46.1%).<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Women with breast cancer typically present to the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital with advanced stage disease and experience poor outcomes.</p> Fejiro O. Okifo Derek A. Tuoyire Anthony B. Appiah Samue Y. Debrah Martin T. Morna Rosemary B. Duda Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 190 197 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.3 Community acceptance, satisfaction, and support for case management of malaria of various degrees in selected rural communities in Ibadan, Oyo-State <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study aimed to assess communities’ perception and adoption of the evidenced-based malaria diagnosis and case management intervention targeted at under-five children. The effectiveness of trained Volunteer Community Health Workers (VCHWs) to diagnose malaria among under-five children using rapid diagnostic testing kit, provide treatment using Artemisinin Combination Therapy and rectal Artesunate were assessed.<br><strong>Design</strong>: A qualitative evaluation study was conducted in October 2015.<br><strong>Setting</strong>: Communities in the 6 rural wards in Ona-Ara Local Government Area, Oyo State Nigeria.<br><strong>Participants</strong>: Caregivers of under-five children, community–based frontline health workers, and community leaders selected using purposively sampling.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Nine Focus Group Discussions and 15 Key Informant Interviews were conducted using a pre-tested guide. Data were subjected to thematic analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong>: It was disclosed that VCHWs promoted people’s access to prompt and appropriate malaria treatment. The communities accepted the VCHWs; the reasons given for this included the following: effectiveness of VCHWs in case management of malaria; good inter-personal relationship with caregivers; and the positive health outcomes associated with services provided by them. In addition, community members expressed satisfaction with the VCHWs and provided them with all the support needed to function throughout the malaria case management intervention. The VCHWs considered the support as a great source of encouragement.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The use of VCHWs to treat malaria was adjudged to be effective and considered acceptable to the communities. The adoption of the intervention and its integration into the primary health system by the government is advocated for in medically underserved rural communities.</p> IkeOluwapo O. Ajayi Ayodele S. Jegede Akintayo O. Ogunwale Janet Ogundairo Oladipupo S. Olaleye Frederick O. Oshiname Catherine O. Falade Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 198 205 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.4 Epidemiological features of brucellosis and factors affecting its treatment failure and relapse in Qom Province, Iran <p><strong>Background</strong>: Brucellosis is one of the major health problems in many areas of the world, especially in the Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical signs, and risk factors of relapse rate in patients with brucellosis, Qom Province, Iran.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 410 confirmed brucellosis cases in Qom Province, central Iran, from 2015 to 2019, based on epidemiological checklists and according to the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted using Stata software version 14.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The relapse rate of brucellosis was 6.6% until nine months after s arting the treatment, and all recurrent cases were infected by Brucella melitensis. Based on univariate logistic regression analysis, the delayed treatment and type species of Brucella were significant factors affecting the relapse of brucellosis. The relapse rates were 5.4%, 6.2%, and 20.0% in patients whose delayed treatments were &lt;50, 51-150, and &gt;151days, respectively. Based on the multiple logistic regression, it was observed that delayed treatment &gt;50 days increased the rate of relapse more than four times.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The delayed initiation of treatment was a significant factor influencing the relapse of brucellosis; therefore, it is necessary to provide enough diagnostic and laboratory facilities, and people need to be educated about the signs and symptoms of the disease.</p> Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Abedin Saghafipour Amir Hamta Salman Khazaei Atefeh Maghsoudi Saeed Shams Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 206 212 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.5 Utility of an orthopaedic trauma registry in Ghana <p>In most low- and middle-income countries, trauma registries are uncommon. Although institutional registries for all trauma patients are ideal, it can be more practical to institute departmental registries for specific subsets of patients. Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) has started a locally developed, self-funded orthopaedic trauma registry. We describe methods and experiences for data collection and examine patient and injury characteristics, data quality, and the utility of the registry. Of 961 individuals in the registry, 67.9% were males, and the median age was 40 years. Motor vehicle collision (23.3%) was the most frequent mechanism of injury. Lower extremity fractures were the most common injury (60.6%), and 43.9% of injuries were managed operatively. Data quality was reasonable with missingness under 10% for 13 of 14 key variables, with inconsistencies of dates of injury, admission, treatment, and discharge in 9.1% of cases. However, the type of operation was missing for 73.2% of operative cases. Despite these limitations, the registry has been used for quality improvement and to successfully advocate for resources to improve trauma care. The registry has been improved by adding more detailed outcome variables, creating a standardised<br>codebook of categorical variables, and adding more fields to allow for multiple injuries. In conclusion, it is practical and sustainable to institute a locally developed, self-funded orthopaedic trauma registry in Ghana that provides data with reasonable quality. Such a registry can be used to advocate for more resources to care for injured patients adequately and for quality improvement.</p> Elissa K. Butler Dominic Konadu-Yeboah Peter Konadu Dominic Awariyah Charles N. Mock Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 213 220 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.6 Continuous positive airway pressure in managing acute respiratory distress in children in district hospitals: evidence for scale-up <p>In children, acute respiratory distress (ARD) is a clinical presentation requiring emergency management, including mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilators are lacking in sub-Saharan Africa. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is an alternative form of non-invasive respiratory support that has been used in high-income countries for over four decades. Its use in sub-Saharan Africa is, however, limited and often restricted to neonates. Controlled trials in Ghana have shown that the use of CPAP in children younger aged 1-12 months reduces 2-week all-cause mortality from ARD by 60% (RR 0·40, 0·19–0·82; p=0·01). The absolute reduction in mortality of 4% implies one infant life saved for every 25 children treated with CPAP. This paper reviews the findings of the trials in Ghana and<br>contrasts the findings with those of trials in Bangladesh and Malawi. It makes the case that implementation research (rather than more controlled trials) is now needed to support the routine, safe and effective use of CPAP in managing ARD in older infants in district hospitals in Ghana.</p> Frank Baiden Patrick T Wilson Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 221 225 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.7 Marbelization of the gallbladder, a variant of acute gangrenous cholecystitis <p>Cholelithiasis can present from a milder form of biliary colic to a more severe and complicated one like empyema gallbladder and a lesser-known variant of gangrenous gallbladder called marbleization of the gallbladder. The clinical signs and symptoms are similar to acute cholecystitis. Diabetes mellitus could have a role in the process of marbleization. Diagnosing marbleization of the gall bladder is not easy preoperatively. Computerized tomography is a better diagnostic modality when compared to laboratory investigations. Urgent cholecystectomy is the only option, and there is no role of conservative treatment. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with newly diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus diagnosed initially as acute cholecystitis and managed conservatively. He did not respond to treatment and hence underwent cholecystectomy and intraoperatively was found to have marbleization of the gall bladder.</p> Ismail Burud Mahadevan D. Tata Kogaan Selvaraja Sherreen Y. El Hariri Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 226 228 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.8 Obstructed right Duari hernia <p>The caecum and appendix are uncommon contents of femoral hernia (Duari hernia). Diagnosis is usually intraoperative. We report a rare case of obstructed right femoral hernia in a 65-year-old woman. She was admitted into the accident and emergency department because of sudden irreducibility of a previously reducible right groin swelling of 5 years duration. She had obstructive symptoms with an irreducible right groin mass clinically diagnosed as obstructed right femoral hernia. A combination of infra-inguinal transverse incision and a lower midline laparotomy incision was used. The intraoperative findings included the herniation of the caecum and appendix into the right femoral canal. Patient had an uneventful recovery. Duari hernia is uncommon. A high index of suspicion and an experienced<br>surgeon, who can handle uncommon findings should be involved in the management of obstructed femoral hernias.</p> Ugochukwu U Nnadozie, Otuu Onyeyirichi Charles C Maduba Andrew C Ekwesianya Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 229 231 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.9 Primary osteosarcoma of the uterus: a report of two cases <p>Primary extraskeletal osteosarcoma is an uncommon disease and has been reported to affect the uterus only rarely. Less than 20 cases have so far been reported in the English literature. The common clinical presentation is heavy bleeding per vaginam, and in virtually all cases, the diagnosis has been made at an advanced stage of the disease. Various authors have recommended adjuvant chemotherapy, but outcomes have so far been uniformly poor, with survival extended by months rather than years. We present two cases of this rare condition, which were diagnosed four months apart within our histopathology laboratory andconfirmed the very late presentation of the disease in one and the poor survival of both patients.</p> Kofi Effah Edem Hiadzi Anita Osabutey Alex K. Boateng Agyeman B. Akosa Jehoram T. Anim Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 232 235 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.10 Solitary neurofibroma of the right lateral wall of the oropharynx <p>Solitary neurofibroma of the oropharynx is extremely rare. Imaging explorations may be necessary, but the diagnostic certainty is pathological. We report a case of benign tumour of the oropharynx in a 25-year-old woman who was seen for a consultation with dysphagia, a change in voice and dyspnea in the supine position. The excision was performed under general anaesthesia with orotracheal intubation via the oropharyngeal route. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed neurofibroma. Although rare, solitary neurofibroma of the oropharynx should be considered in any benign tumour in the area.</p> Winga Foma Pani Awesso Essobozou P. Pegbessou Bathokedeou Amana Copyright (c) 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 55 3 236 237 10.4314/gmj.v55i3.11