Proteinuria in newly-diagnosed HIV patients in Southeast Nigeria: a hospital based study
Background: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of proteinuria in newly diagnosed HIV subjects in southeast Nigeria using 24-hour urine protein.
Methods: This was a prospective study on the prevalence of proteinuria in newly-diagnosed HIV subjects in Owerri, southeast Nigeria. Three hundred and seventy five newly diagnosed HIV subjects and 136 non-HIV controls. Subjects were recruited from the HIV clinic and Medical Outpatient Department (MOPD) of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. An interviewer structured questionnaire was administered and relevant data collected. Investigations performed included HIV screening, and confirmatory test, 24-Hour Urine Protein (24HUP), Creatinine Clearance. Significant 24HUP was taken as ≥ = 0.150g.
Results: Three hundred and seventy five HIV subjects and 136 control subjects took part in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 39±11 years. Significant Proteinuria (≥ = 150mg/day) was present in 122 (32.5%) of the HIV subjects and 20 (14.7%) of the controls (p=0.019). In addition, 68 (18.1%) of HIV and 8 (5.9%) of non-HIV control subjects had proteinuria in the range of 0.150g - 0.300g/day. While 54 (14.4%) of HIV subjects and (11) 8.1% of non-HIV controls, had proteinuria in the range of 0.300g - 3.499g/day, p<0.001.
Conclusion: Prevalence of significant proteinuria is high in newly diagnosed HIV-seropositive and assessment of proteinuria is recommended in newly diagnosed HIV subjects. This will help in identifying chronic kidney disease subjects, and also encourage early initiation of treatment.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Proteinuria, 24-Hour Urine Protein (24HUP), Creatinine Clearance (Ccr)