Serum levels of selected trace metals and their association with body mass index and c-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Oredo Local Government Area, Benin City
Background: Diabetes is a major worldwide health problem, characterized by chronic hyper glycaemia resulting from diverse aetiologies. It is associated with increased metabolic processes and oxidative stress. There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in type 2 diabetic patients. To determine serum levels of copper, manganese, selenium and chromium in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, and their association with body mass index and C Reactive protein.
Methods: Forty six type 2 diabetic subjects, both male and female, in the age range 38 to 83 years and 23 age matched controls were involved in the study. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, trace elements (copper, chromium selenium, manganese), body mass index, C Reactive protein levels were determined.
Results: Fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, , C reactive protein levels were significantly elevated in the diabetics (7.9 ± 0.4 mmol/L, 8.3 ± 2.2, 155.4 ± 29.9mg/L) than in the controls (4.5 ± 1.1mmol/L, 4.5 ± 1.0%, , 10.3 ± 2mg/L) P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the body mass index in the diabetics (27.6 ± 2 2 5.8 kg/m ) and the controls ( 23.2 ± 1.0 kg/m ) p > 0.05. The mean serum levels of manganese and selenium were significantly lower in the diabetic subjects (122.3 ± 44.7 ?mol L, 244.9 ± 15.8?mol /L) than in the controls (170.9 ± 39.4 ?mol /L, 353.4 ± 10.9 ?mol /L) respectively P<0.05. Mean serum copper and chromium levels were significantly higher in the diabetic subjects (242.5 ±68.0 mmol, 9 ± 1.2?mol/L) than in the controls (198.3 ± 22.0 ?mol /L, 0.0 ?mol/L) p < 0.05. Serum copper showed a significant positive correlation with body mass index, r = 0.440, p <0.05, and showed a weak positive correlation with C Reactive protein which was not significant.Serum chromium, showed a non significant positive correlation with body mass index and C Reactive protein.
Conclusion:Decreased serum levels of selenium and manganeese in type 2 diabetes mellitus may be suggestive of the possible roles deficiency of these micronutrients play in aietio pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The significantly elevated serum copper levels and its positive correlation with body mass index, is suggestive that elevated copper levels may play a role in aietio pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the mechanism by which it does this could be multiple.
Key words: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Trace metals, Body mass index, C-reactive protein