HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 2021-08-02T05:58:34+00:00 Andries G. van Aarde Open Journal Systems <p><em>HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies</em> is an acclaimed Open Access journal with broad coverage that promotes multidisciplinary, religious, and biblical aspects of studies in the international theological arena. The journal’s publication criteria are based on high ethical standards and the rigor of the methodology and conclusions reported.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Table of contents 2021-07-30T16:46:35+00:00 Andries G. van Aarde <p>No abstract</p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Church-driven primary health care: Models for an integrated church and community primary health care in Africa (a case study of the Salvation Army in East Africa) 2021-08-02T05:58:33+00:00 Vhumani Magezi <p>The role of churches in primary health care delivery in Africa’s poor contexts is widely acknowledged. Discussion of churches’ work in health largely focuses on the spiritual side and tends to downplay (or overlook) the practical side. A clear challenge and gap in the role of churches in primary health delivery is the lack of clear models and approaches to determine the efficacy of the interventions. Hence, the role of churches as a player in the delivery of primary health care needs examination. This paper examines the role of church-driven primary health care, using a practical case study of the health work of the Salvation Army in East Africa. It outlines the primary health services rendered by the Salvation Army and deduces five models that emerged from the work of the various implementing churches in delivering primary health care. The article proceeds from an analysis of the meaning of primary health care and how churches are historically and currently positioned to contribute to primary health care. The article demonstrates that, viewed from a primary health care delivery perspective, churches in Africa play a critical practical contribution further to a spiritual role. From a practical theology perspective, the paper provides insight into how churches could operate in communities within the interface of church and health spaces. However, the church’s role and function is organic and differs in every community.</p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pentecostals and the pulpit: A case study of the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa 2021-07-30T17:02:14+00:00 Marius Nel <p>In general, early Pentecostals did not use any pulpits in their halls in order to underline their emphasis that each believer is a prophet and priest equipped by the Holy Spirit with gifts for the edification of other members of the assembly. All participated in the worship service by way of praying, prophesying, witnessing and bringing a message from God. From the 1940s, Pentecostals in their desire to be acceptable in their communities formed an alliance with evangelicals, accepted their hermeneutical viewpoint and built traditional churches in accordance with the Protestant tradition. From the 1980s, the pulpit started disappearing from the front of Pentecostal churches. This is explained in terms of new alliances that Pentecostals made with neo-Pentecostalist churches and a new hermeneutical viewpoint. The hypothesis of the article is that the Pentecostal stance towards the pulpit was determined by its hermeneutical perspectives. It is described by way of a comparative literature study and applied to a specific case study, the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa.</p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Combating political and bureaucratic corruption in Uganda: Colossal challenges for the church and the citizens 2021-08-02T05:42:38+00:00 Wilson B. Asea <div>This article formulates a new approach to combating corruption in Uganda. In pursuit of this research, the author highlights the chronicity of corruption in Uganda, which is uniformly political and bureaucratic. Bureaucratic corruption takes place in service delivery and rule enforcement. It has two sides: demand-induced and supply-induced. Political corruption occurs at high levels of politics. There are ‘political untouchables’ and businessmen who are above the law and above institutional control mechanisms. The established institutions of checks and balances in Uganda have assiduously continued to have a limited bearing on corruption. Neither coherent anti-corruption norms nor severe formal sanctions are able to dishearten certain politicians and civil servants in Uganda from the deviant behaviour of structural corruption. Corruption is a spiritual departure from the law and standard of God. It is an action conceived in the human mind and carried out by the corrupt. Therefore, corruption deterrence not only lies in sound public financial management systems but depends to a large extent on having people with positive human character in all aspects of national life. This article thus provides the framework of corruption and discusses the manifestation of political and bureaucratic corruption in Uganda. It also exegetes the biblical stance regarding corruption. Finally, it proposes a panacea for combating political and bureaucratic corruption.</div> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Participation in Christ’s body and his blood during celebration of Holy Communion as illuminated by the meaningful lenses of cognition and recognition 2021-07-30T17:23:26+00:00 Ferdi P. Kruger <div>In this article, the author focusses on the importance and possible value of the concepts of cognition and recognition for reflection on what should actually happen during celebration of Holy Communion. The point of departure is that celebration, in essence, means that it should be a meaningful experience. The meaningfulness consists of the intriguing fact that participants are participating in Christ’s body and in his blood while celebrating Holy Communion. In celebrating Holy Communion, people are engaging in a ritual that involves interaction with a variety of symbols. The author offers perspectives based on a qualitative empirical study in which people expressed their views on what they actually experience when celebrating the sacrament of Holy Communion. The article adheres to Browning’s methodological insights. He describes research activity as ranging from description, to systemising (exploring practical wisdom and understanding), to strategising (practising strategic practical theology). The research problem is as follows: ‘Could cognisance of the lenses of cognition and recognition of the deeper message of Holy Communion enrich the conscious appropriation of salvation while celebrating the sacrament of Holy Communion?’ The research problem is addressed from the vantage point of understanding sacraments from a Reformed perspective. The concepts of cognition and recognition are highlighted in a brief historical description of what a sacrament is, taking into account the insights from social psychology regarding the essence of the concepts of cognition and recognition. The author further elaborates on the functioning of the concepts of cognition (phronesis) and recognition (anamnesis). In the last section of the article, the author utilises a hermeneutical interaction between descriptive and systemising perspectives to formulate strategies for how people’s experiences of participation in Holy Communion can be enriched through the meaningful lenses of cognition and recognition.</div> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Pastoral juxtaposition in spiritual care: Towards a caregiving faith theology in an evangelical Christian context 2021-07-30T17:31:03+00:00 Victor Counted Joe R. Miller v.counted@westernsydney. <p>The problem for many troubled youths seeking help within a Christian context is that their need for meaningful connections and spiritual growth is attached to relationships with their significant others. When needs of attachment are not adequately met due to the effect of an insecure attachment working model in a relationship with God, the teen may end up leaving the faith community seeking a new caregiver or regress into spiritual struggles, depression, anxiety, self-doubt and other negative emotions. This paper responds to the issues associated with youth attachment behaviour towards God using a caregiving theology (i.e. pastoral juxtaposition) that draws on the ‘power of two’ through incarnational creativity and pneumatological ecclesiology. This proposed theology first supplements the work of the pastoral counsellor to create a transformative container through which young people, already within a redemptive Christian community, can grow spiritually and deepen their relationship with God. Secondly, pastoral juxtaposition targeting the spiritual needs of hurting youths serves to create a magnet space within the church community that models incarnational love, pastoral care and support for young people by entering their world order to reframe their personal stories of grief, abandonment and insecurity through creative means. Finally, we theologise that pastoral juxtaposition also integrates the power of the Holy Spirit, as the ultimate caregiver in times of conflict, into each youth’s unique journey of faith and healing. Implications of this pastoral theology are discussed and applied to everyday life.</p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Domestic abuse in marriage and self-silencing: Pastoral care in a context of self-silencing 2021-07-30T17:36:24+00:00 Sinenhlanhla S. Chisale <p>The socialisation of women into self-silencing by religion has complicated pastoral care interventions for the victims of domestic violence, particularly within the context of marriage. This article is written from an intercultural approach to pastoral care and applies the theory on silence. The aim of this article is to explore the way pastoral caregivers can extend caregiving to the victims of marital domestic violence who have silenced the self. The article draws from qualitative data that were collected through autobiographical narratives, in-depth interviews and observations, and analysed through thematic analysis. The findings indicate that women are forced to silence the self in contexts of domestic violence by not speaking about the abuse that takes place in marriage. The self-silencing is justified by those who interpret Biblical texts that address marriage naively; in this case one of the two women who participated in this study confirmed that Proverbs 21:9 is used to justify self-silencing. Thus, the article concludes that pastoral care interventions in such contexts should include a circle of the significant others that women interact with such as the perpetrator and the broader community, including her social networks.</p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The role of parents in the development of faith from birth to seven years of age 2021-07-30T17:44:48+00:00 Marsulize van Niekerk Gert Breed <div>Scholars have researched the role of parents in the development of the child. Families play a critical role in the development of a young child. According to Freud, many adult symptoms of anxieties are rooted in childhood experiences, and that a child’s development would influence how the child would behave as an adult and that their actions may correlate to something that occurred in their childhood. Erikson’s theory of ego development stated that the ego, which is the centre of each person’s individuality, could not be understood in isolation from the others and the wider world around it. Research has also been done on the way that a person’s faith develops. In his book, Stages of Faith, Fowler developed a theory of six stages that people go through as their faith matures. Keeley, combined his knowledge of education with his passion for children’s ministry and published a book with the title, Helping Our Children Grow In Faith. As a theology student with a background in Early childhood development, the researcher believes that these two academic areas should be utilised together to assist parents in the process of the child’s faith development during its formative years. Osmer’s core task of Practical Theology, and its four questions, will be used to determine parents’ roles in the faith development of their children. Empirical data gathered in a study by Nel and Van der Westhuizen will be used. When all four questions are answered, this study will deduce useful guidelines for parents. The importance of the role that parents play in the faith development of children is immense. A baby’s or an infant’s interaction with his or her parents forms the basis on which he or she will build their developing faith. If this foundation is not placed down correctly, problems might arise later in the child’s faith development.</div> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Tribalism: Thorny issue towards reconciliation in South Africa – A practical theological appraisal 2021-07-30T17:52:22+00:00 Elijah M. Baloyi <div>The apartheid regime used various strategies to ensure that South Africans formed a divided nation. It was through the differences between ethnic groups and tribes, among other things, that the government of the time managed to manipulate and entrench hatred and a lack of trust among most black South Africans. Tribalism, which existed even before apartheid, became instrumental in inflicting those divisions as perpetuated by the formation of homelands. The various ethnic groups had been turned against one other, and it had become a norm. Nepotism, which is part and parcel of the South African government, is just an extension of tribalism. It is the objective of this article to uncover how tribalism is still rearing its ugly head. From a practical theological perspective, it is important to deal with tribalism as a tool that plays a part in delaying tribal reconciliation, which was orchestrated by apartheid policies in South Africa.</div> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The retirement crisis of South African Dutch Reformed ministers: An empirical study 2021-08-01T15:18:46+00:00 Liezel Alsemgeest <p>There has been a backlash from recently graduated proponents of the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa that they are unemployed not just because of dwindling church member numbers, but mainly because contract posts are being filled by retired ministers and not by the proponents. International research suggests that the reason retired ministers continue working is not necessarily because they want to, but because they do not have sufficient retirement savings. The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of Dutch Reformed ministers who would reach retirement age within the next 5 years, in an effort to establish their preparedness for retirement. The respondents were sent a link to an online questionnaire and 147 useable questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 47.7%. The results indicated that almost half of the respondents stated that they would want to continue working in a part-time ministerial post after retirement and that the ministers’ motivation to continue working was directly linked to their lack of financial provision for retirement. A major cause for concern is the high number of respondents who selected the ‘uncertain’ response option for most of the retirement questions, as they are so close to retirement. An intervention to incorporate financial management specifically in theological training is urgently needed.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Screening the church: A study of clergy representation in contemporary Afrikaans cinema 2021-08-01T15:16:48+00:00 Shaun Joynt Chris Broodryk <p>he church-funded CARFO or KARFO (Afrikaans Christian Filmmaking Organisation) was established in 1947, and aimed to ‘[<em>socialise</em>] the newly urbanized Afrikaner into a Christian urban society’ (Tomaselli&nbsp;<strong><a>1985</a></strong>:25; Paleker&nbsp;<strong><a>2009</a>:</strong>45). This initiative was supported and sustained by the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC), which had itself been part of the sociopolitical and ideological fabric of Afrikaans religious life for a while and would guide Afrikaners through tensions between religious conservatism and liberalism and into apartheid. Given Afrikaans cinema’s ties with Christian religious and political conservatism, we explore the role – even the centrality – of the Afrikaans church in cultural activity before 1994, and then after 1994. Here, Afrikaans church is an inclusive term that brings together various denominations of Afrikaans-speaking churches, but which mainly suggests the domination of the DRC. After establishing the role of the Afrikaans church in the way described above, we move towards the primary focus of our study: exploring the representation of clergy in the contemporary Afrikaans film&nbsp;<em>Faan se Trein</em>&nbsp;in order to describe certain theological implications of this representation. With reference to&nbsp;<em>Faan se Trein</em>, our article notes and comments on the shifts that have occurred in clergy representation in Afrikaans cinema over the past decades. Osmer’s four tasks of practical theology, namely, descriptive, interpretive, normative and strategic are used for theological reflection. With due contextual reference to Afrikaans film dramas such as&nbsp;<em>Broer Matie</em>&nbsp;[Brother Matie],&nbsp;<em>Saak van Geloof</em>&nbsp;[A Matter of Faith],&nbsp;<em>Roepman</em>&nbsp;[Stargazer],&nbsp;<em>Stilte</em>&nbsp;[Silence],&nbsp;<em>Suiderkruis</em>&nbsp;[Southern Cross] and&nbsp;<em>Faan se Trein</em>, we arrive at some preliminary conclusions about the representation of clergy in mainly contemporary Afrikaans cinema.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Towards a multi-method approach to addressing violent protest action in South Africa: A practical theology perspective 2021-08-01T15:28:30+00:00 Gordon E. Dames <p>Pervasive violent strike action and protests over service delivery in South Africa call for new methodological approaches. To this end, a multi-method research approach consisting of a case study, communicative action, a multidimensional theoretical framework and its integration into African Christopraxis research is proposed. The ultimate aim is to offer a broad research framework and to encourage a multidisciplinary research approach to work in and beyond the Marikana-Wonderkop area.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Conflict resolution and reconciliation within congregations 2021-08-01T15:38:54+00:00 Derek L. Oppenshaw Malan Nel Liebie Louw <div>‘Being church’ in today’s world is frought with challenges to traditional practice and contemporaneous opportunities. These challenges, differences, dilemmas and paradoxes, when not handled effectively, have the propensity to escalate into and along a conflict continuum. Conflict can arise at any time within a congregation and needs to be understood and handled theologically. This article addresses some areas within congregations that attract or incubate conflict and provides an overview of related theory of conflict. The research explores current perceptions, understandings and behavioural responses to conflict, personal and corporate experiences and observed outcomes of conflict within congregations. The exploratory study reveals certain disconnects between individual and corporate practice. Congregations in general are biased towards conflict avoidance, peacekeeping and reconciliatory measures – frequently at the expense of long-term resolution. Attaining both resolution and reconciliation appears to be a luxury and not the natural outcome one may expect within Christian fellowship. The perception, understanding and views of most congregants are not aligned to good theological principles and practice. The resultant behaviour mostly observed within congregations does not lead to reconciliation and to a lesser extent resolution. Despite the seemingly high presence of conflict within congregations, no specified education on the understanding, appreciation and handling of conflict in commonly used discipleship resources or dedicated programme was found. The article concludes with a view towards a future praxis of discipleship and leadership, which incorporates the theological understanding and handling of conflict. Broader means of assisting congregations in or post conflict to recovery are also presented.</div> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The violence of the masculine ideal: A case for nomadic masculinities 2021-08-02T05:50:35+00:00 Siphiwe I. Dube <p>In this article, I argue that a different kind of discourse on Christian masculinities in post-apartheid South Africa is possible despite the prevalence of largely idealised and politically conservative ideologies of masculinities promoted primarily through the public and private performance of violent masculinities. Drawing on a redacted critique of current prevalent discourses of transformation in critical masculinities studies such as alternatives masculinities, hegemonic masculinities, liberated masculinities and toxic masculinities, I underscore how these discourses are limited in their thinking on masculinities in general as they presume the ideal of what a liberated man should be like. Specifically, I argue that idealised masculine ideals, even in their liberatory forms, eschew mobility and fluidity and, therefore, end up restricting the possibility for transformative action. I propose, instead, that we reinscribe discourses of Christian masculinities with the notion of nomadic subjectivity, espoused by Rosi Braidotti, as a form of transpositional praxis of being in order to expand our linguistic repertoire of transformative masculinities. Such a shift in focus, as I demonstrate, has the propensity to aid us in constructing and implementing creative and imaginative programmes of engaging men in rethinking scripts of masculinities.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) When two elephants fight, it is the grass that is trampled: A practical theological elucidation of the predatory attitude of hate speech 2021-08-01T15:53:18+00:00 Ferdi P. Kruger <p>This study addresses a topic that is often neglected by faith communities, like the proverbial expression ‘an elephant in the room’, namely, hate speech. A community of believers could easily be guilty of practices of hate speech by keeping themselves silent or not being mindful in the way they talk about people. What is more is that the saying ‘when two elephants fight, it is the grass that is trampled’ represents something of the dynamics around this issue in reminding people of the harmful consequences of hate speech for people in close proximity to people who are guilty of hate speech. This article argues that a greater awareness of the intrinsic aspects involved in hate speech is needed before one could even mention the issue of combating it. The predatory attitude that underlies hate speech is examined from a practical theological vantage point. The functioning of attitudes, inner speech, attributes and silence are elucidated. The research question therefore asks whether the silence of faith communities on the predatory nature of hate speech in the public sphere contributes to the fact that people are unaware of their own attributional biases. These biases consequently gather momentum and are voiced as hate speech. This research offers analytical perspectives from the viewpoint of ethics, social psychology and communication sciences to indicate the value of speaking truth in love. Perspectives on the concept of boldness, speaking truth in love and the attitude of like-mindedness with Christ are also offered. After this hermeneutical consideration, the article concludes with practical theological perspectives on how hate speech could be addressed.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The ‘persona’ lives of Roman Catholic priests 2021-08-01T16:02:47+00:00 James O. Juma Danie du Toit Karen van der Merwe <p>This study aimed to provide an in-depth description and interpretation of African Roman Catholic Church priests’ experiences integrating African and Western worldviews into their lives and works as Roman Catholic Church priests through the lens of Jungian constructs. Fifteen African priests were purposely selected and interviewed in depth. Additional sources of data were reflexive notes and observation notes. Data were subjected to various iterative cycles of analysis. Most participants (80%) indicated that, in one way or another, they were experiencing conflict in terms of the cultural values of manhood and Roman Catholic Church prescription. Findings suggest that a more concerted and serious effort should be undertaken by the Roman Catholic Church to support and guide its priests on a path of healing, which includes the priests risking cultural openness and being true to themselves and God.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Exploring the role of the pastoral interpreter 2021-08-01T16:10:59+00:00 Herculene Kotzé <p>This article investigated the role of the pastoral interpreter within this contextually specific environment, taking cognisance of the debate regarding professional and non-professional interpreting and what this debate means for future research on interpreting role descriptions. Generally, pastoral interpreters in South Africa are untrained and not remunerated for their work as interpreters. Considering the foregoing, this investigation aimed to define the role of the pastoral interpreter in South Africa by using existing interpreting role models as a point of departure. The population of respondents involved in the study included all the freelance pastoral interpreters voluntarily working as interpreters at a Dutch Reformed Church in Pretoria, South Africa. Primary data collection took place in the form of (1) a structured self-administered questionnaire and (2) a semi-structured focus group interview. The data were analysed using qualitative data analysis software, Atlas.ti. From the results of the study it can be deduced that pastoral interpreters’ perception is that it would be unethical to not act according to what they believe in, and that is to deliver a message received from the Holy Spirit, thus becoming a spiritual conduit. The results of the study also indicated that formal training would enhance pastoral interpreting practices as there are gaps in untrained pastoral interpreters’ theoretical knowledge and knowledge of standard interpreting practice.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Humor en prediking 2021-08-01T16:19:37+00:00 Gerbrand Bodenstein Cas Wepener <p>Humor is an integral part of society. The idea that humor and laughter are good for one’s health and psyche is well known, and many researchers praise the role that humor plays in society. Humor also plays an important role in Christian preaching and is found in various sermon contexts. However, whether the humor used in preaching is always of good quality, is doubtful. This article aims to highlight the role of humor in preaching. The phenomenon of humor and the role of humor in the Bible is described and, lastly, the use of humor in preaching is explored.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) An evaluation of the Church of Central Africa Presbyterian General Assembly and poverty alleviation from a koinōnian perspective in Malawi 2021-08-01T16:25:12+00:00 Qeko Jere <p>This article argues that the adoption and practice of koinōnia is critically important to the poverty alleviation process. Koinōnia empowers, as both the poor and the rich exist in the other and for the other, modelled on the immanent and economic Trinity. Koinōnia is the very engine of the Godhead and the heart of a Christian gospel. It was the enforcement and institutionalisation of koinōnian practice that contributed to the growth of the early church despite the economic hardship of the time. The lack of church koinōnian life today has led to socio-economic disparities amongst congregations and congregants. This article aims at finding out whether the Church of Central Africa Presbyterian General Assembly (CCAP-GA) is a koinōnian community. This article evaluates the koinōnian life in the CCAP-GA as a way of making the church an effective koinōnian community. Thus the article examines whether there has been Presbyterian fellowship and koinōnian practice within the CCAP-GA. This article is informed by koinōnian theoretical practice in probing the question of poverty within the CCAP-GA. Until the church and Christians begin to live and practise koinōnian life, equally share and give at all levels, poverty will continue to be a challenge in the home, society and the church.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) ‘New Nigeria’: A socioreligious dimension of prophetic envisioning 2021-08-01T16:35:02+00:00 Ishaya Anthony <p>Globally, the quest to create societies free of corruption and violence that foster appreciation for human dignity and quality of life is highly envisioned and desired. Similarly, the current political, economic, religious and social tension in Nigeria calls for deep and courageous reflections about the country’s future in the League of Nations. These social realities have created a quest for a new society of justice, love, freedom and faithful stewardship in governance. Thus, this article portrays a song by Solomon Lange, titled ‘New Nigeria’, as prophetic within the tradition of prophetic envisioning. Also, it interprets the intersections between the prophetic dimension of this song and the sociocultural realities in Nigeria. Specifically, it argues that amidst Nigerians’ aspirations and struggles to build a new and corruption-free society, this song can contribute to raising national awareness that stimulates alternative consciousness, which invites the citizenry to courageously and tirelessly hope and work towards its actualisation.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) An analysis of conflict situations within the leadership and various structures of the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Orange Free State 2021-08-02T05:57:18+00:00 Khamadi J. Pali <div>Conflict is inevitable within congregations and can contribute to their growth or decline, depending on how the leadership in a congregation handles a conflict. The Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Orange Free State (DRCA OFS) has, for over a decade, experienced growing internal conflicts within its leadership in the various structures of the church. Some of these conflicts have culminated in physical violence and litigations. This article aims to analyse the emerging conflict situations within the leadership in the various structures of the DRCA OFS. The leading research question is: What are the dynamics of conflict situations of the leadership in the various structures of the DRCA OFS?</div> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)