Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning and Implementation Approach among Cattle Keepers in Mbeya Region in Tanzania: The Case of Kyela District
The purpose of the study was to assess community participation in O and
OD planning process and to explore factors which affect effective implementation of development activities in Kyela District. Various projects were implemented in the district through the O and OD planning approach in the district. The study selected cattle dipping as one of the projects implemented which showed great success at start but later dropped in number of cattle taken for dipping. The trend led to the need to investigate the causes for this drastic change. The objectives were to determine procedure in O and OD planning, investigate the factors that led to the drastic drop in number of cattle taken for dipping, and to establish the measures taken by the district leadership in addressing the problems. Data was obtained by interviewing 90 cattle keepers and 18 district and community leaders while secondary information was obtained through reading various documents. The methods used to collect data were through Focus Group Discussion, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Observation and interview. Both Qualitative through content analysis and Quantitative through univariate analysis were applied in data analysis. The findings indicated that, 84% of cattle keepers were involved in the O and OD project process. A management committee was elected and trained to manage the project and funds from dipping fee to meet costs for the dip maintenance. Challenges experienced included long distances of walking to the dips, poor management of funds, lack of subsidies for chemicals for dips which increased the dipping charges. Alternative measure taken was to use hand sprays by cattle keepers. It was further found out that, district leadership have not made follow up of the problems due to inadequate number of staff, lack of transport and funds to subsidize for the chemicals used in dips. It is recommended that, O and OD planning be applied in all the development projects as community members gain knowledge, skills and develop capacities in managing projects. This also creates a sense of ownership of the projects. District leadership should educate people continuously and monitor closely implementation of the projects to ensure success and sustainability of the projects.
Key Words: O and OD Planning, Community Participation, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Cattle Dips, Capacities of Community in Managing Projects