Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania 2024-01-05T16:39:55+00:00 Professor Emmanuel Kigadye Open Journal Systems <p><em>Huria</em>&nbsp; is an international journal that publishes original research papers of academic interest (theoretical, applied and general), targeting tertiary institutions and researchers and is therefore hospitable to scholarly writing on a variety of academic topics ranging from&nbsp; education, humanities, social sciences and all cross cutting issues related to societal transformation in developing countries.&nbsp; The types of contribution range from original research papers, review articles and technical notes. Submitted papers are subject to blind peer review by reputable researchers who are experts in the relevant fields.&nbsp; Papers are evaluated for the quality of research as well as the relevance and accessibility for an international audience. The journal is published triennially in March, July and December.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Discursive Construction of External School Quality Assurance Policy Actors’ Power in Selected Secondary Schools in Tanzania 2024-01-05T12:45:09+00:00 Hadija Mnyausi Ally Mcheka William A. L. Anangisye Moshi Amsi Mislay <p><em>In 2017, the School Quality Assurance (SQA) policy was adopted and implemented in secondary schools in Tanzania. Since the beginning of its implementation to date, not much is known about how SQA policy discourses construct external SQA policy actors’ power versus internal SQA policy actors. This study analyzed how SQA policy discourses discursively construct external SQA policy actors’ power in selected secondary schools in Tanzania. Since policies are implemented through the production, distribution, and consumption of texts and discourses, the study was mainly based on textual and discourse analyses. Findings indicate that SQA policy discourses reconstructed the power of external SQA policy actors rather than the internal SQA policy actors and stakeholders. It is argued that by empowering external SQA policy actors, SQA policy implementation becomes more or less the same as school inspection. It is recommended that an effective SQA policy implementation needs to empower internal SQA policy actors because they interact daily with teachers and students to improve teaching and learning, curriculum, school leadership, school environment, and community engagement.</em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Groundwater from Selected Areas of Dar Es Salaam City, Tanzania 2024-01-05T12:59:53+00:00 Addo Ndimbo Stephen Mbuligwe Julius Mbuna <p><em>Groundwater in Temeke and Ilala areas within Dar es Salaam city was analysed for physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels to assess its quality as potable water. Random sampling was used to obtain groundwater samples from three sampling sites, namely, residential areas, near petrol stations and dumping sites. Temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured on-site by a water quality multimeter while heavy metals levels were determined by standard methods using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Measurement of pH (pH 5.2-7.3) showed that groundwater largely satisfied TBS and WHO standards. Similarly, EC values of groundwater (256.5-5286 μScm-1) largely met TBS specifications while only 33% of groundwater complied with the WHO guidelines. Cd in groundwater from the three sampling sites (0.01-0.50 mgL-1) exceeded TBS and WHO standards. Pb in 89-94% of groundwater collected near petrol stations (0.01-1.10 mgL-1), 80% of groundwater from dumping site (0.01-1.22 mgL-1), and 25%-70% of groundwater from residential areas (0.01-0.65 mgL-1) exceeded the TBS and WHO standards. Cr concentration in 50-66% of groundwater samples collected near petrol stations (0.01-1.1 mgL-1) and 20-42% of groundwater from residential areas (0.01-0.45 mgL-1) exceeded TBS and WHO standards on total Cr. Levels of Cu (0.01-1.70 mgL-1) and Zn (0.01-1.82 mgL-1) were largely within the TBS and WHO standards. Groundwater in the study area is contaminated with non-permissible levels of Cd, Pb and Cr, which makes it unsuitable for human consumption and hence likely to affect public health</em><em>.</em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Utilisation of E-Government Services during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Exploring Efforts by the Government of Tanzania 2024-01-05T13:30:39+00:00 Catherine G. Mkude <p><em>This article attempts to examine the Tanzanian Government’s utilisation of e-government services during the Covid-19 pandemic. The methodological approach of the article is online content review due to the phenomenological nature of the unfolding pandemic. The review is based on the researcher’s observations and analysis of the e-government platforms leveraged in Covid-19 pandemic. The results indicate that e-government has been embraced significantly through the efforts done by the government to make citizens more informed about the pandemic and to promote use of e-services. E-government is presented as among the key tools for managing the spread of the pandemic. The article also paints government digital transformation as a huge opportunity provided by e-government during the pandemic and beyond. The article contributes to literature by presenting the significance of e-government to developing countries during crises including: government-wide online presence, quality information provision, G2C and G2G e-services, online engagement and social media presence. The review shows that collaboration and coordination among government entities are strategic techniques for an integrated and efficient digital government. Rightly so, the policy makers are recommended to strengthen inter-governmental collaboration and coordination in planning, developing, implementing and maintaining e-government services. </em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Role of Communal Consumptive Natural Resources Management Approach in Addressing Community Economic Benefit in Western Tanzania 2024-01-05T14:12:35+00:00 Allan L. Hiza <p><em>The role of consumptive natural resources management in addressing community economic benefit in West Tanzania is much likely less known. </em><em>This study was carried out to assess the impact of communal consumptive natural resources management on community economic benefit. A four-point numerical scale survey questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents, and an interview guide was administered to 40 Key Informants. Quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS, while qualitative data were analyzed by Excel framing summarizing technique. The research findings indicated that communal consumptive natural resources management had a close to strong correlation and significant positive impact on community economic benefit (CEB). The linear relationship between the communal natural resources management approach and community economic benefit (CEB)Pearson (r) covariance statistical relationship correlation coefficient result was Pearson -r (733) = .73, p&lt;.001. The positive Pearson (r) above 0.7 implied that the relationship was a strong correlation. The impact of the communal natural resources management approach on community economic benefit (CEB) was calculated through multiple linear regression. Multiple linear regression coefficient B= 1.43 at 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34, 1.53; p=0.000. The result implied that an increase of one unit of the communal consumptive model was associated with</em><em> a positive increase of 1.43 CEB.</em><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; The positive increase in CEB suggests that the communal consumptive natural resources management approach significantly impacts community economic benefit (CEB).&nbsp; It is recommended that to maximize community economic benefit (CEB), communal consumptive natural resources management approaches should be focused on and given significant attention. Moreover, to maximize community economic benefit (CEB), an integrated hybrid combo of consumptive approaches such as sustainable timber, and non-consumptive approaches such as avoided deforestation and increased sequestration carbon credit is recommended for terrestrial natural resources management in western Tanzania.</em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 English language Pedagogical Content Knowledge of English Language Beginner Teachers in Tanzania: A reflection to English language teaching method course in Tanzania Universities 2024-01-05T14:32:07+00:00 Joyce Kipanda Wadrine Maro <p><em>This study explored English language Pedagogical Content Knowledge of secondary school English language beginner teachers in Tanzania on the aspects of self-perceived knowledge, understanding, and classroom teaching practices regarding English language PCK domains namely; English language teaching orientations, English language curriculum materials, English language learners’ learning and English language instructional strategies. A total of 128 secondary school English language beginner teachers were involved from Dar es secondary schools. Simple random sampling and convenient sampling techniques were employed to obtain English language, beginner teachers. Data were collected by using a questionnaire method, semi-structured interview method, documentary review method, and observation method. The analysis of the data revealed that English language beginner teachers' conceptions regarding English language pedagogical content knowledge are partly. This is because despite English language beginner teachers self-perceive as highly knowledgeable and demonstrating good understanding regarding English language PCK, their actual classroom teaching practices are not appropriate. The study concludes that more opportunities should be given through English language teaching method courses during teacher preparation for student teachers to practice teaching activities in the respective PCK domains. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A Review and Future Directions of Brand Experience Research in Tourism 2024-01-05T14:58:30+00:00 Juma Matonya <p><em>This paper presents a review of brand experience studies in tourism using a systematic literature review while utilizing a total of 44 articles that were published in 30 journals. Four databases were used to search for the articles including Taylor and Francis, Google Scholar, Emerald, and Science Direct. The objectives of this review were to discuss the extant state of brand experience literature in the tourism industry, summarize the antecedents, mediators, moderators, and outcomes of brand experience and identify the gaps in the current studies and suggest the areas of future research. The results indicate that the quantitative research approach, convenience sampling technique, cross-sectional survey strategy, and structural equation modeling have dominated brand experience research. Various theories used, contexts, methodologies, antecedents, mediators, moderators, and outcomes of brand experience are also discussed in the paper. It is concluded that brand experience influences the majority of customer-related and brand-related constructs. Thus, it is recommended that tourist agencies, destination practitioners, and other tourism stakeholders should invest in generating pleasurable experiences at every touch point of their service to differentiate themselves from their competitors. </em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Market Policy Reforms and Education Quality in Public Higher Education in Tanzania: The Role of Quality Assurance Mechanisms 2024-01-05T15:01:42+00:00 Neema Mariki Mkunde Hilary Dachi <p><em>Globally, following financial austerity facing universities, many Higher Education (HE) systems have introduced Market Policy Reforms (MPR) as an alternative way of providing solutions on how states should finance higher education, increase access, and manage HE systems efficiently and effectively. The study used a qualitative research approach and a multiple case study design. Qualitative data collected from interviews, focus group discussions, and documentary reviews were subjected to content and thematic analysis. The study findings showed how mechanisms of quality assurance work to ensure quality in HE institutions. For instance, institutionalising quality assurance guidelines policies from the Tanzania Commission for universities is an essential mechanism that forces universities to comply with the set guidelines and circulars. Also, the directorates of Quality Assurance (QA) play a significant role in inculcating a culture of quality assurance practices to achieve the university's core mission. The implementation of MPR has influenced the access of a significant number of students, but expansion of access does not commensurate with available resources. The study recommends that at times of massification, external and internal QA mechanisms are indispensable for promoting and maintaining quality standards in HEIs</em><em>. </em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effectiveness of Offline Video-Based Biology Instructional Materials on Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools 2024-01-05T16:10:40+00:00 Kassimu A. Nihuka Fides P. Matemu <p>This study investigated the effectiveness of offline video-based instructional materials in enhancing students’ academic performance in biology lessons in selected secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. The study used holistic multiple case study and quasi-experimental research designs to collect both qualitative and quantitative data using structured questionnaires, interviews and tests. A total of 2 teachers from school A and school B (i.e. one from each school) and 168 students (i.e. 84 from each school) were purposively selected to participate in the study. Analysis by SPSS and data reduction techniques have revealed that offline video-based instructional materials are effective in enhancing students’ academic performance in biology in the experimental groups from both schools (P=0.0001) and made students quite positive about learning biology (89.3%) - 97.6%,). <em>As perceived by students, the enhanced academic performance is the result of improved classroom interactions due to the materials. Specifically, the use of offline video-based instructional materials improved interactions between students and biology teachers, amongst students through group activities and between students and the learning resources.</em> <em>Furthermore,</em> the materials enhanced students’ interest in biology (94.0%), and understanding of concepts (92.9%) and made them retain more biology concepts (94.1%). Based on the findings, appropriate recommendations for policy, action and future research are suggested.&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessment of Teaching Approaches Employed by Teachers in Teaching Students with Visual Impairment in Tanzania Inclusive Secondary Schools 2024-01-05T16:14:03+00:00 Paul Msoka Mwajabu A. K. Possi Bernadetha G. Rushahu <p><em>This study assessed the teaching approaches employed by secondary school teachers teaching in inclusive classrooms incorporating students with visual impairment in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which the approaches suited the students’ learning needs. The study adopted a qualitative research approach, employing a single case research design. Purposive sampling procedures were employed to obtain a sample of 24 respondents. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations and documentary reviews. The collected data were analyzed through thematic data analysis procedures </em><em>and presented using descriptions, tables and charts. The findings have revealed that some of the teaching approaches executed by teachers accommodated the learning needs of students with visual impairment, while others did not. It is recommended that teachers should adapt teaching approaches that suit students with visual impairment. Further, the government should organize more regular trainings and professional development courses for raising teachers’ awareness on inclusive issues.</em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Utilization of Fiscal Resources in Fee-Free Education Policy: The Case of Selected Community Secondary Schools’ Heads in Tarime Urban District 2024-01-05T16:39:55+00:00 Lucas Chacha Flora Kiwonde <p><em>This study investigated the capacity of heads of schools in utilizing the fiscal resources for implementing fee free education policy (FFEP) in community secondary schools. The study employed descriptive research design with a quantitative approach where stratified sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 190 respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data and SPSS served as an analysis tool in interpreting the collected data. The findings revealed that heads of schools supervise and monitor the expenditure of school funds as per government directives and financial regulations although they do not provide accurate financial information of their schools. On the other hand, the study found that heads of schools do not properly keep records of staff in planning and allocation of fiscal resources related to implementing FFEP. The study concluded that although heads of schools do not delegate the mechanism of financial matters to capable staff, the prioritization of financial allocation according to the needs, helped successful implementation of the FFEP. The study recommends that heads of schools should keep records of staff properly in planning and allocation of fiscal resources for implementing FFEP. This goes together with the heads of schools giving accurate financial information of their schools and involving important stakeholders in decision making and matters concerning school budget.</em></p> 2024-01-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024