Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania <p><em>Huria</em>&nbsp; is an international journal that publishes original research papers of academic interest (theoretical, applied and general), targeting tertiary institutions and researchers and is therefore hospitable to scholarly writing on a variety of academic topics ranging from&nbsp; education, humanities, social sciences and all cross cutting issues related to societal transformation in developing countries.&nbsp; The types of contribution range from original research papers, review articles and technical notes. Submitted papers are subject to blind peer review by reputable researchers who are experts in the relevant fields.&nbsp; Papers are evaluated for the quality of research as well as the relevance and accessibility for an international audience. The journal is published triennially in March, July and December.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Open University of Tanzania, 2018 en-US Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania 0856-6739 Copyright is owned by the Open University of Tanzania Analysis of Profit Efficiency of Grape Production: A Case of Smallholder Grape Farmers in Dodoma, Tanzania <p><em>The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of production and profit efficiency of grapes production from farmers in Dodoma region. However, the study was specifically conducted in Dodoma region at Dodoma municipal council, grape farmers were the focal point of the study. The research used two approaches, quantitative approach and qualitative approach. Through purposive and simple random sampling, four (4) respondents from four villages (one officer in each village) who were government extension service officers were interviewed. Moreover, in this study, a sample of 118 respondents from grape farmers were provided with questionnaire. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires and the results were&nbsp;analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) program version 20. The results show that grape production contributes a lot to the economics of the household since it increases the income of the household up to a profit of&nbsp;Tsh 667,419 per acre. Therefore, we recommend some strategies which should be used to boost grape production in the country. The strategies include the formation of groups or cooperative agriculture; agricultural experts (such as agricultural extension officers) should establish close relationship with farmers to understand farmers’ challenges fully and involve them in obtaining solutions. Finally, simple storage facilities should be provided through collaboration with different partners like individuals, private sectors and government.</em></p> Aristides Nalyoto Deus D. Ngaruko Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-07 2023-06-07 29 1 An Examination of the Humanitarianism-Disaster Management Nexus in Tanzania’s Policy and Legal Framework <p><em>The use of law, the main tool for implementing policy, to regulate and coordinate disaster management, preparedness and response systems features in many jurisdictions. Also, international guidance on the use of effective laws and policies, which emphasize taking on board critical stakeholders, including humanitarian responders is available.&nbsp; Consequently, the government of Tanzania has promulgated a new disaster management law as part of a wider reform of the legal framework to regulate disaster management and response systems which seek to involve stakeholders at all stages. This article analyses the extent to which the restructured legal framework and supporting policy address humanitarian responders who provide informal assistance, often before formal government intervention. The article traces the history of disaster management policies and laws in the country in the context of the humanitarianism – disaster management nexus. It focuses on the aftermath of the earthquake that ravaged Kagera Region in Bukoba district in the northern west part of the country in September 2016. This analysis is supported with field data from Bukoba district. The findings reveal that the legal framework for regulating disaster management and response system does not reflect international and regional clarion calls for engaging informal humanitarian responders.&nbsp; Recommendations on how this gap can be addressed are provided, laying emphasis on incorporating the clarion calls in order to improve the country’s legal and policy framework for disaster response and management systems.</em></p> Hamudi Ismail Majamba Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-07 2023-06-07 29 1 Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Affective Commitment among Public University Academicians in Tanzania: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction <p><em>This study examined the effect of two job attitudes – perceived psychological contract breach and job satisfaction on affective commitment as well as whether job satisfaction mediates the relationship between psychological contract breach and affective commitment. A cross-sectional explanatory research design was used involving a sample of 223 academicians drawn from five public universities in Tanzania. Multiple regression analysis techniques were used to examine the effect of psychological contract breach and job satisfaction on academicians’ affective commitment to their respective universities. The mediation role of job satisfaction was tested using Andrew Hayes’ Process Macro 4.0. The results show that the two predictors explained about 62 percent of the variance in affective commitment where psychological contract breach and jobs satisfaction have, respectively, statistically significant negative and positive effects. Job satisfaction, in addition to being the most influential predictor, mediates significantly, but partially, the relationship between psychological contract breach and affective commitment. The study concludes that while psychological contract breach negatively affects the academicians’ affective commitment, part of this effect is indirect through job satisfaction. It, therefore, recommends that honoring psychological contracts is important for cultivating affection and identification of academicians with their universities, and that these outcomes would be enhanced if job satisfaction-enhancing measures are also stepped up.</em></p> Chacha Alfred Matoka Proches Ngatuni Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-07 2023-06-07 29 1 Examination of Pedagogical Practices of Secondary School Physical Education Teachers in Tanzania <p><em>The study on which this paper is based examined the pedagogical practices of secondary school teachers in teaching Physical Education (PE) in Tanzania. The data from two experienced PE teachers were collected through interview, lesson observation and documentary review and they were analyzed thematically. Findings indicated that PE teachers predominantly use teacher-centred teaching approaches and lecture teaching methods. This teaching approach and methods as used in teaching PE classes did not involve learners and they thus limited students’ mastery and denied them the opportunity to practice the intended skills during and after the lesson. Inadequate facilities and equipment for teaching PE also affected teachers’ pedagogical practices. It was concluded that the teacher-centred teaching approach dominated in most of the observed PE classes. It is recommended that PE teachers be advised to abide by the requirements of the syllabus. They should be given in-service training on how to apply learner centred teaching approach and to use their local environment to improve their pedagogical practices</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> John Siayi Steven Mabagala Ismail Nathanael Pangani Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 Financial Literacy Variables in Microfinance Institutions studies: A Systematic Literature Review <p><em>The study applied a systematic literature review to explore financial literacy variables in microfinance institution (MFI) studies. Using manual content analysis, 73 studies identified variables covered in MFIs' financial literacy literature. The study revealed that the majority of scholars have assessed the role of financial literacy in promoting clients' savings, money and mobile money usage, loan repayment and investment. However, few studies focused on variables such as outreach, budgeting, interest rates and women's empowerment. In most of the reviewed studies, regression data analysis was used. The findings indicate that there is a dearth of MFI studies that use the term "financial literacy" and its sub-variables. Furthermore, there are no studies that have examined how financial literacy impacts MFI performance variables such as sustainability, profitability, efficiency, credit risk management and corporate governance. In addition, there are a few studies that link financial literacy with MFI theories. Generally, the findings indicate that variables related to financial literacy are not adequately covered in MFI studies. The study recommends the formulation of policies that promote financial literacy training for formal and informal MFIs. This is the first comprehensive systematic review to examine financial literacy variables in MFI studies.</em></p> Joseph Magali Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 An Assessment of Mentoring Programmes for Novice Secondary School Teachers’ Competencies in Mbeya Region, Tanzania <p><em>Mentoring programmes are cost- effective and interesting in helping one to grow in different teaching methodologies for practicing secondary school teachers and learning processes for novice teachers. When mentoring is carried out in one’s early career development, novice teachers become competent and execute their work with confidence. Yet, there are a few studies which have so far been conducted concerning the assessment of mentoring programmes for novice secondary school teachers’ competencies. Specifically, the study examined the forms of mentoring offered to novice teachers in secondary schools in Mbeya region; and established stakeholders’ perceptions on mentoring programmes in developing novice teachers’ teaching competencies in secondary schools in Mbeya region. A descriptive survey research design utilizing quantitative and qualitative approaches was used to a sample size of 110 respondents. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively while qualitative data being analysed through content analysis. The findings revealed that different forms of mentoring were practiced in Mbeya region. These included formal and informal mentoring, instance and group mentoring, situational and supervisory mentoring where each form of mentoring benefited novice teachers towards teaching and learning. Also, the study revealed positive perception of mentoring programs towards developing novice teachers’ competence in secondary schools from stakeholders. Further, novice teachers viewed their mentors as models to help understanding of their own strengths and weakness, as well as acquiring problem solving skills, thereby filling the gap created by limited practices and experiences not covered during teacher training. It was recommended that there is a need to strengthen programmes in secondary schools in order to support novice teachers’ progress in the beginning of their teaching career.</em></p> Mussa Shabani Ally Daphina Libent Mabagala Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 COVID-19 Pandemic in Pre-Primary Children in Tanzania: Strategies and Challenges <p><em>This study aimed at exploring challenges faced by pre-primary children during COVID-19 pandemic and the strategies adapted to help them to cope with the pandemic in a Tanzanian context. Fifteen parents whose children were in pre-primary schools were interviewed through mobile phones on the challenges faced children and the strategies used to help their children cope with COVID 19 pandemic. The main challenges reported were loneliness and inactiveness. Majority of the parents could not device strategies that would help their children cope with the pandemic but reported to connect their children with the media such as educative cartoons. Based on the findings, it is recommended that necessary measures should be taken to empower parents to stimulate, play, communicate, and support their children’s learning at home.&nbsp; Guidance should be provided to parents on how to engage their children in age-appropriate ways in order to develop literacy and numeracy skills at home.</em></p> Theresia Julius Shavega Daphina Libent Mabagala Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 Teachers’ Perceptions on the Relationship between Social Competence and Reading Skills Acquisition in Primary School Pupils <p><em>This paper set out to examine teachers’ perceptions of the link between social competence skills and reading skills acquisition in the Kiswahili language for standard four pupils in public primary schools. This was a qualitative study, made on the</em> population of the Kiswahili language subject teachers. The study was conducted in Babati Township Council, Manyara Region, Tanzania. It involved 17 selected public primary schools where one subject and school head teachers from each school were involved. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide.&nbsp; <em>The results show that the most important social competence skills for the acquisition of reading skills are communication skills, as other skills depend on the pupil’s ability to communicate his/her ideas well. The study posits that social competence skills have a positive impact on pupils’ acquisition of reading skills. The study recommends an additional curriculum that imparts pupils with social competence skills for reading and academic achievements at large.</em></p> Innocent N. Messo Richard Shukia Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 Role of Reward System on Teacher Motivation in Public Secondary Schools in Ilala Municipality <p><em>This study sought to link performance, the level of teachers’ motivation and the reward systems existing in public secondary schools in Ilala Municipality</em><em>. The study involved a total of 397 respondents including teachers, quality assurers, and heads of schools as key respondents to whom questionnaires and interviews were administered (only 20 participants were involved in the interview out of 397). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study findings revealed that there was no relationship between the level of teachers’ </em><em>motivation</em><em> and the reward systems existing in public secondary schools</em><em>. While the reward system such as timely salary payment, the existence of timely rewarding system with clear performance standards set for rewarding, and existence of fair opportunities for professional development among teachers are linked to performance. However, findings further revelaed that the majority of teachers were demotivated by factors such as lack of transport, office space, housing facilities, poor working conditions, such as, shortage of classrooms, which resulted into having packed classrooms. Other factors include unclear reward system and low salaries compared to other professions. It is recommended that rewarding systems should be clear and communicated to teachers. Ilala Municipality should ensure the availability of teachers houses in school proximity, adopting clear guidelines for rewarding teachers, ensure that teachers are paid reasonable salaries, improving teacher working environment such as ensuring availability of teaching resources in schools. It is also recommended that, future research should be expanded to other regions of Tanzania; and includes more variable; such as issues of workload, stress and stress management and mental health towards employees’ performance. The analysis techniques also should include multilevel analysis as it is expected to have groups and nested data. To conclude, the government should improve teaching and learning environment.</em></p> Daniel Lazaro Swai Winifrida Malingumu Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 Perceptions of Education Stakeholders on Use of Code-Switching in English Foreign Language Classrooms in Primary Schools in Tanzania <p><em>Code switching is used as a strategy for teaching of English foreign language in Tanzania public primary school contexts. It is however not officially recognised as one of the strategies for teaching and learning the English subject. Little attention has been given to the use of code switching for teaching and learning English as a foreign language in relation to how it minimises the opportunity to use the target language. The paper is informed by various perspectives on use of code switching in the language teaching and learning classroom. In particular, the paper is pegged on the view that in the foreign language classroom exposure and use of the target language is prime and should be maximised. This paper presents findings from a study that investigated the use of code switching in English language teaching and learning process where a qualitative approach was used. <a name="_Toc510012208"></a>The findings of the study showed code switching negatively affects language proficiency of learners, as it lowers students’ ability to master English language, hinders language learning and it contributes to challenges students face during exams. Code switching impedes English language learning and should be avoided so as to develop a tendency for practicing speaking English language during English sessions. It is recommended to persistently teach English through English in the foreign language context to maximise use and the linguistic space for effective learning of the language.</em></p> Loti Isaya Kambey Mwajuma Siama Vuzo Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1 Impact of COVID-19 on Inclusive Education in Higher Learning Institutions in Rwanda <p><em>This study analysed the impact of COVID – 19 pandemics on the inclusive learning process of students in the higher learning institutions in Rwanda. A quantitative research design was adopted. Primary data was collected from 1170 students in 30 learning institutions in Rwanda using a closed ended questionnaire. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical analytical tools. The results indicated covid -19 has impacted the inclusive learning process of students in the higher learning institutions in different ways.&nbsp; Students in rural areas were more affected due to limited access to internet connections, lack of internet data and limited access to electricity all of which were caused by limited infrastructure in the online learning. Students from poor families regardless of their locations suffered more due to limited access to electricity and internet connections in their homes. The study contributed to the existing knowledge in two ways, Firstly, it established the impact of covid–19 pandemic on the inclusive learning process in higher learning institutions. Secondly, it established the learning inequality based on location and social economic status. </em></p> Daniel Twesige Faustin Gasheja Kadhafi Isaie Misago Eugene Muvunyi Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 29 1