Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania <p><em>Huria</em> <em> </em>is an international journal that publishes original research papers of academic interest (theoretical, applied and general), targeting tertiary institutions and researchers and is therefore hospitable to scholarly writing on a variety of academic topics ranging from education, humanities, social sciences and all cross cutting issues related to societal transformation in developing countries. The types of contribution range from original research papers, review articles and technical notes. Submitted papers are subject to blind peer review by reputable researchers who are experts in the relevant fields. Papers are evaluated for the quality of research as well as the relevance and accessibility for an international audience. The journal is published triennially in March, July and December.</p><p> </p> Open University of Tanzania, 2018 en-US Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania 0856-6739 Copyright is owned by the Open University of Tanzania Lack of Parental Gender Socialization of Children at Family Level and its Effects on Adulthood Gender Discrimination in Rwanda <p><em>The paper discusses holistic integration of gender concepts at tender ages.&nbsp; This study aimed toinvestigate parents’ participation in socializing children to gender equality and assess the effect of lack of parental socialization of children to gender equality. Three hundred and fifty (350) respondents were purposively selected from Kicukiro, Bugesera, Musanze, Nyanza and Nyamasheke. Data were collected through questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussion and qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Findings revealed that there is lack of parental gender socialization of children as it is negatively perceived in Rwandan families. Gender equality is perceived by 75 % of respondents to be the cause of family conflicts and violence. Furthermore, 69% of all respondents accuse the theory of gender equality to divert females from their responsibilities which results in family dysfunctionality. In addition, 42% of respondents consider gender equality as a way of western people to disorganize developing countries. Lack of parental gender socialization of children at family level affects children's adulthood. It presents enormous and long-lasting consequences to both females and males. Respondents confirmed that there is a considerable number of females who did not attend school because fees were reserved to boys. On the other hand, male respondents confirmed that being overpowered in childhood negatively affects adulthood relationship with their wives. Socializing children to gender equality at family level from their tender ages would be one of the best strategies to eradicate Gender-Based Violence (GBV) and discrimination.</em></p> Christine Kapita Umumararungu Appoline Kabera Bazubagira Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Determinants of Pension Uptake in the Informal Sector of Tanzania <p><em>Pension is important for persons in both formal and informal sectors of the economy. In developing countries, formal sector is much covered in terms of pension compared to informal sector though people employed in the two sectors are equally in need during retirement age. This study aimed at determining the factors for pension uptake in the informal sector in Tanzania, secondary data collected by FinScope Tanzania in 2017 were used. To determine the factors for pension uptake in the informal sector, the binary multiple logistic regression model was applied. The dependent variable is pension status and the independent variables include age, gender, highest education level, income, location, and main income generating activity. Individuals working in farming and fishing, trade, service provision, and casual work are less likely to uptake pension compared to informal salaried. Likewise, females are less likely to uptake pension compared to male category in the informal sector. Individuals at age forty and above are more likely to uptake pension compared to those aged less than 20 years. Middle and the two highest quintiles of income are more likely to uptake pension compared to those in the two lowest quintiles of income. Persons in urban are more likely to have pension compared to rural residents. Pension uptake is common to individuals with above secondary education, at least middle-income quintiles, urban residents, males, and those aged forty years and above in the informal sector.</em></p> Shadrack Elia Kibona Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Reasons for Patronage of Traditional Bone Setting as an Alternative to Orthodox Fracture Treatment A case of Muleba District, Kagera Tanzania <p><em>The study examined the factors for the preference of Traditional Bone Setting (TBS) in the treatment of fractures among Tanzanians. It sought to unfold other reasons for consulting TBS practitioners besides poverty, ignorance and inaccessibility to modern orthopedic services which are commonly associated with the pull factors. From the available literature, though very popular, TBS is associated with complications like malunion, non-union of the fractured bones, and limb gangrene. In order to find out why there is a paradox, the investigation was mainly done in Muleba, a district of Kagera Region where the treatment is most common according to the Institute of Traditional and Alternative Medicine, at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. The study revealed that the therapy management groups were often more vocal than their fractured individuals in deciding the model of treatment. And, the fractured people who are financially able, formally educated and geographically closer to orthopedic services are among the adherents of TBS. Besides, the respondents unanimously expressed their dislike of orthopedic amputation, Plaster of Paris (POP), internal and external fixation let alone the length of time spent in hospital for treatment. All these have significant implications including continued use of TBS by rural and urban people for themselves and livestock. Combining X-ray reading and alternative medicine makes TBS sustainable. Thus, in future, it is suggested TBS services be integrated to orthodox treatment so as to control its negative aspects while harnessing its positive aspects.</em></p> Straton Kakoko Ruhinda Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Plastic Packaging Materials as Possible Source of Hazardous Chemicals to Food and human health: A Review <p><em>Plastic packaging has been implicated as a source of food packaging material (FPM) borne compounds transfer into food. These chemical migrants from packaging materials to food products are associated with human health risks. However, opinions on plastic packaging safety differ greatly and scientific agreement on product safety is still indefinable. The present review intends to explore and present the state of science about the safety of plastics, the potential for consumer exposure and discuss the major issues with respect to associated health risks safety. </em></p> Leonard W.T. Fweja Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Gender Discrimination in Politics: A Critical Review of Liberalism <p><em>Liberal political theory assumes that the separation of the public from the private sphere is natural and therefore woman’s subordination to man is inherent. The backdrop of this dichotomy appears to reinforce gender stereotyping since it constructs woman to reflect an apolitical nature of a subject in a political system. Man’s behaviour, on the other hand, is portrayed as the standard political behaviour against which a woman is supposed to measure. Viewed from the perspective of the dichotomy, politics is reduced to “man” and hence its masculinisation. Camouflaging its exclusionary tendencies, liberal theory purports to employ “universal”- neutral static language which is “sexual-blind” such as “individual”, “citizen”, “worker”, “equality”, and “representation”. Liberalism therefore makes universal rationality the essence of humanity and the basis of its epistemology and politics. This article examines the core of liberalism as one of the sources of gender discrimination in politics.</em></p> Alexander Makulilo Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 A Rule-based Approach for Resolving Cybercrime in Financial Institutions: The Tanzania case <p><em>It is widely accepted that technology is an agent of change in the society. However, the current rate of change in technology, particularly ICT, mobile and ATM machines, leaves room for it to be exploited and be used for things it was not meant for. The paper aims at examining the challenges to electronic banking and initiatives taken to address cyber-crimes among financial institutions in Tanzania. Using the data gathered based on employed comparative analysis methods from our studies and research undertaken by researchers, we examine in detail, technical factors that are continually shaping the landscape of cybercrime and its impact on financial Institutions. Picking a leaf on how to deal with challenges brought by information and communication technology-induced innovations in the banking sector a Platform for Organization Security Threat Analytic and Management (POSTAM) approach to address the cyber security problems in Tanzania was re-introduced. The data model approach was used to analyze collected data stored from the survey to test the security prototype developed.</em></p> George S. Oreku Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Fee-free Basic Education Policy Implementation in Tanzania: A ‘Phenomenon’ Worth Rethinking <p><em>This paper is based on a study that employed qualitative research methods to examine the implementation of the fee-free basic education policy in Tanzania. The study reveals that, the policy is misapprehended, and causing confusion and dissonance among key implementers including heads of schools and parents, and it is threatening the quality delivery of education. However, there is no doubt that the implementation of the fee-free education policy has significantly promoted access to basic education for children from various socio-economic backgrounds. Thus, this paper argues that the implementation of the fee-free basic education policy, albeit commendable, it is not a panacea to achieving equitable access and quality education delivery for all. Hence, the policy and its implementation is a ‘phenomenon’ worth rethinking for Tanzania to realise equitable and quality universal basic education. </em></p> Richard Shukia Richard Shukia Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Behavioural Predictors of Students’ Career Intentions in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Tanzania <p><em>This study assessed the career intentions of the hospitality and tourism students to identify their predictors, based on the theory of planned behaviour. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple regression analysis techniques were applied on survey data from a conveniently determined sample of 232 students enrolled in certificate and diploma programmes at the National College of Tourism in Tanzania. The results indicate that students’ career intentions were, on average, high and so were their attitudes toward a career in the industry, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Career intentions and attitudes towards the career were significantly higher for the hospitality programme and NTA 6 students. Attitudes (perceived behavioural control) were significantly higher (lower) for students in the travel and tourism programme than those of students in the tour guide operations programme. Students with personal exposure to the industry (also in NTA 6) showed higher subjective norms than those without exposure (NTA 5). Students’ career intentions were significantly positively predicted by their attitudes toward a career in the industry, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, even after controlling for the effects of skill level and programme type. Perceived behavioural control had the strongest predictive power. The study calls for a dynamic review of the curricula, resourcing the training institutions, and availability of well supported and monitored internship opportunities.</em></p> Proches Ngatuni Eunice Nderingo Ulomi Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Challenges facing Wastewater Management in Fast Growing Cities in Tanzania: A Case of Dodoma City Council <p><em>The main objective of this study was to examine the challenges facing the Urban Water Supply Authorities in fast growing cities on wastewater management, Dodoma City as a case study. The study used field observation and interview methods to collect data. The primary data were complimented by literature search to enrich the findings. Purposive sampling to Dodoma Urban Water supply and Sewerage Authority (DUWASA) and City Council Health officials was adopted to obtain the required information for this study. The findings revealed the major challenge facing DUWASA to include rapid expansion of the city associated with lack of funds for extension and rehabilitation of infrastructure. However, there is a minimal use of the available wastewater systems by the current population due to high cost of installation. The study recommends collaborative efforts by DUWASA and Dodoma City Council on the expansion of sewerage system to match with the current growing speed of the City. The study recommends for The Ministry of Water and Irrigation Tanzania to support DUWASA to execute its planned project of constructing larger waste stabilization ponds away from the residential areas.</em></p> Anna I. Wawa Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1 Assessment of Beekeeping as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Iramba District <p><em>The effects of climate change in Tanzania affect rain fed agriculture and reduce the productivity in most parts of Tanzania. Indigenous knowledge and different agricultural strategies, on how to diversify to other agricultural activity like beekeeping has been adopted by different communities in Tanzania, especially in semi-arid areas. This paper focuses on assessing potentials of beekeeping as an adaptation strategy against impacts of climate change in Iramba District. The research used different methods in collecting information such as key informants’ interviews, focus group discussions and observation methods. Secondary data were collected through documentary review, while the questionnaire was administered to 150 heads of households from four villages namely: Kyalosangi, Galangala, Mdonkolo and Songambele. </em><em>The results show that over a period of 30 years, about 77% of respondents reported decrease in maize and 78% decrease in sunflower productivity. In interviews, the respondents indicated that they have shifted to beekeeping which contributes more to household’s income than land tilling which is rain-fed.&nbsp; This is supported by 33.1% who were attracted in beekeeping for income purposes. The average honey production per hive ranges from 10 – 15 Lts/hive in top bar hives and frame hives, while traditional hives ranges between 5 – 10 Lts/hive. This study therefore recommends provision of appropriate capacity building and financial support to beekeepers in order to optimize production of bee products in the study area.</em></p> Ziwa Elia Yohana Josephat Saria Copyright (c) 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 27 1