Evaluating the effect of antidiabetic treatment on haemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters among type 2 diabetics in Ilorin, Nigeria
Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of epidemic proportions and many patients are at a great risk of premature mortality and complication of atherothrombotic disorders affecting coronary, cerebral and peripheral arterial trees. Increased Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 inhibits fibrinolysis and predicts cardiovascular risk in those living with Type 2 Diabetes. This study aimed to determine the effect of antidiabetic treatment on haemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters among Type 2 Diabetic subjects in Ilorin.
Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving 78 Type 2 diabetic patients, (39 treatment naïve, 39 treatment experienced). Full blood count was performed using Sysmex XP 300 while Prothrombin time was determined using one stage test of Owren. Activated partial thromboplastin time was determined by method of Proctor and Rapaport. Fibrinogen and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor type-1 were assayed using AssayMax Human Fibrinogen ELISA and AssayMax Human PAI-1 ELISA kit. Data Analysis was done using SPSS version 25.0.
Results: Mean PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in treatment naïve diabetics when compared to treatment experienced diabetics (2.44 ±2.57 vs 2.51±1.47 ng/ml p=0.002) as were fibrinogen levels (434.65±366.15 vs 482.24± 299.64mg /dl; p = 0.048). PAI -1 levels were lowest among diabetics treated with Metformin + DPP4 inhibitors, while fibrinogen levels were lowest among those treated with Metformin + sulfonylurea combination.
Conclusion: Oral hypoglycaemic treatment, combination therapy in particular, improves fibrinolysis in type 2 diabetics thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
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