The Incidence and Management of Typhoid Fever in Nigeria
Typhoid or enteric fever is caused by Salmonella typhi. It is largely a disease of developing nations due to their poor standard of hygiene and unavailability of potable water. It is transmitted faeco-orally through contaminated food and water. The most prominent feature of the infection is fever which gradually rises to a high plateau. Symptoms such as diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain and encephalopathy may occur. Complications like intestinal perforation and gastrointestinal haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The gold standard of diagnosis is by isolation of the organism from culture of blood, bone marrow aspirate, stool, bile, rose spots or urine. The Widal test which is commonly used here is not a reliable diagnostic modality. Treatment is by use of antibiotics and drugs of choice are the fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins.
IFEMED Journal Vol. 14 (1) 2008: pp. 75-78