International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research <p>The journal publishes current and emerging issues in the following areas: Animal science, crop science, weed science, biological science, food science, Biotechnology in agriculture and apiculture, agricultural extension, agricultural economics, soil science, agricultural technology and aquaculture. It aims to promote the effective dissemination of information on research findings thus encouraging active research in all aspects of agricultural and apicultural sciences and to provide an effective means for research scientists to contribute to international scientific and technological knowledge in the agricultural and apicultural sciences.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal (Prof. A A Odunsi) (Editor) Wed, 10 Aug 2016 11:04:02 +0000 OJS 60 Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit population in South-western Nigeria Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit production for small-holders and commercial rabbit production. Rabbits for this study were obtained from heterogeneous populations reared in south-western Nigeria, and a total of fifty-six adult rabbits (6 months old) comprising of 49 does and 7 sires were randomly allocated into sire families. Reproductive data were taken from each breeding doe and recorded for each sire family. The reproductive data obtained include annual productivity indices for each doe and sire family at birth, weaning and at week 12 post-partum. The total number of kits delivered at each kindling were recorded as the litter size at birth , the numbers weaned/doe/year were derived by multiplying the average litter size at weaning by number of litters/doe/year. The numbers of fryers/doe/year were obtained by multiplying average number weaned/doe by number of litters/doe/year multiplied by post weaning survival. Annual fryer yield (kg)/doe/year were obtained by multiplying total number of fryers/doe/year with live market weight (kg). Kilogram meat/doe/year were derived from the product of annual fryer yield (kg)/doe/year and the dressing percentage (0.55). Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using SAS® 2004. Results showed that, the long kindling interval (93 to 115 days ) between two consecutive litters affected overall numerical doe productivity with a range of 6 to 27, 3 to 21 and 3 to 18 kits per doe/year at kindling, weaning and 12th week of age respectively. Annual fryer yield/doe/year was 20.24 Kg and the projected Kg meat/doe/year was 11.13 Kg. Mortality was highest in the first two weeks of life and continued to occur throughout the period of the study though at varying degrees across sire families. There was significant sire effect (P&lt;0.05) in litter size at weaning and kindling- interval in the sire families. It was concluded that, the major factors affecting doe productivity indices in this population were low litter size at birth, long kindling interval and pre-weaning mortality. Thus, future genetic improvement programmes targeted towards productivity for this rabbit population must consider selection for traits which include increased litter size at birth, short kindling interval and low pre-weaning mortality in the maternal lines while litter size at weaning and kindling interval must be considered for the paternal lines. B. A Ajayi, S. O. Oseni, M. A. Popoola Copyright (c) Medicinal plants used to treat Snake bite by Fulani Herdsmen in Taraba State, Nigeria Snake bite remains a public health hazard in tropical countries. Taraba State with a high Fulani population has one of the highest incidences in the country. The Fulani herdsmen are more at risk because of their agropastoralist lifestyle. Their village settlement positions make it more difficult for them to assess antiserum, the only source of treatment available for snake bite, Therefore the only option left for them is the use of village surrounding medicinal plants for the treatment of the snake bite. Recent efforts on ethnopharmacology revealed several of these medicinal plants with potential to treat snake bite. This work was designed to document medicinal plants used by Fulani herdsmen in Taraba State, Nigeria, for the treatment of snake bites. Information provided will enable further study on the efficacy of the medicinal plants so identified. Eight out of the total sixteen Local government areas (LGAs) of Taraba State, Nigeria were selected for the survey. Sixty four (64) herdsmen with good ethnomedical knowledge were interviewed. The results showed that 19 plants species belonging to 15 plant families were used as remedies for the treatment of snake bite by 42.20% of the Fulani herdsmen interviewed. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently used plant. The proposed mechanisms of action of these plants with regards to venom enzymes inhibition or neutralization were discussed. Further studies on the efficacy and toxicity of these plants are suggested. S. A. Ameen, T. Salihu, C. O. Mbaoji, C. A Anoruo-Dibia, R. A. M Adedokun Copyright (c) Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Cattle in Ogbomoso, Oyo State <p>A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus 8(26.7%), Trichostrongylus spp 13(43.3%) and Cooperia spp 2(6.7%) as single infection. Mixed infections involved Haemonchus contortus with Trichostrongylus spp 5(16.7%), H. contortus with Cooperia spp 2(6.7%) being statistically significant (p&lt;0.05).The prevalence rates of GI nematodes based on the sex and age of the cattle were 3.02%, 2.97%, 3.2% and 2.8% in adult, young, male and female animals respectively, with the highest faecal egg counts in adult animals with no statistical significance difference (p&gt;0.05). Both female and male cattle were more infected with Haemonchus contortus with 5 (62.5%) each, while only male and young cattle were infected with Cooperia spp 2 (100%) and 1 (50%) respectively. The highest rate of mixed infection occurred in adult cattle with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp 2 (100%) followed by Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia spp in male 4 (80%) and adult 3 (60%).The variation in the prevalence of GI nematodes among sex and age groups within systems can be used as an entry point towards rational use of anthelmintics for each management system. More studies on seasonal transmission pattern of all these parasites are required in order to design rational, economic and locally sustainable parasite control programmes.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key words</strong>: Prevalence, gastro-intestinal parasites, Cattle, Ogbomoso</p> S. A. Ameen, R. A. M. Adedokun, S.O. Akinola Copyright (c) Antioxidant Activity in the Blood and Testes of the Mottled Brown Male Japanese Quails at Different Age Groups <p>This study was carried out to assess the antioxidant activity in the blood and testes of mottled brown male Japanese quails at different physiological age groups. Fifty four mottled-brown male quail birds with average weight of 128.33±28.21g were randomly allotted to three age groups: pubertal (7 to 10 weeks old), mature (15 to 20 weeks old) and adult (above 24 weeks old). Eighteen birds were allocated per age group; each treatment had 3 replicates with 6 birds each. Blood sample was collected from all the birds and the birds were sacrificed, dissected, testes exiced and processed into testicular homogenate. Both serum and homogenate fluids were centrifuged separately to harvest the supernatants and analysed for the antioxidant indices. Statistical comparisons were made between the serum and testicular antioxidant indices. Result showed that the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity in the serum and testis were not significantly (p0.05) different among the age groups except for the glutathione peroxidase activity which was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in the mature male quail compared to the adult and pubertal age groups. The result from this study suggests that the age difference in mature mottled brown male quails had improved glutathione peroxidase than other age groups, indicating an enhanced reproductive efficiency than pubertal and adult age groups in Japanese quails.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key words</strong>: Reproductive potentials, Mottled brown male quail, Age groups, Antioxidant indices.</p> E. O Ewuola, T. O. Olaleye Copyright (c) Cocoa farming households’ vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti State, Nigeria Rural livelihoods in south western Nigeria are at risk to climate variability on the short run and climate change on the long run. This subjects agro ecological niches to high sensitivity and exposure thus reducing the adaptive capacity. Vulnerability results and the cocoa farming households, the major contributors to the Nigerian non-oil foreign exchange earnings are not exempted. This paper therefore attempts to assess the degree of vulnerability of cocoa farmers in Ekiti State to climate variability hazards using the Integrated Vulnerability Assessment Approach (IVAA). Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 cocoa farmers from whom data were generated for this study. Data were processed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA).The result indicated that Cocoa farmers in Ekiti North, Ekiti South and Ekiti Central Agro Ecological Zones (AEZs) had the vulnerability index of -0.05, -0.76 and 0.82. This implies the first two zones are more relatively vulnerable as compared to the Ekiti Central AEZ. This is attributable to the higher exposure, sensitivity and the lower adaptive capacity in the Ekiti North and South AEZs in relation to the Central. The relative low level development and poor adaptive capacity in terms of access to basic infrastructure, technology, institutions and pervading poverty in the first two AEZs can be held accountable for this. All efforts should be in put in place by all relevant agencies to promote integrated rural development that enhances investment in infrastructure and alleviation of poverty. National regulations that restrict anthropogenic activities inimical to climate variability should be put in place. Efforts should equally be made by our national government to endorse and key-in to international treaties and protocols that control climate variability and change. L. O. Okojie, S. O Olowoyo, R. A Sanusi, A. R. Popoola Copyright (c) Growth Performance, Haematological Indices and Cost Benefits of Growing Pigs Fed Cassava Peel Meal Diets Supplemented With Allzyme® SSF Effect of replacing dietary maize with cassava peel meal (CPM) supplemented with Allzyme® SSF (SSF) on the growth performance, haematological indices and cost benefits of growing pigs was investigated. Chemical composition of CPM and diets used were determined using standard procedures. Twenty-four growing pigs with average weight of 14.0+0.25kg were allotted to 6 dietary treatments whereby CPM replaced maize at 0, 50 and 100% levels with SSF supplementation at 0g/100kg and 20g/100kg of diet. Each treatment was replicated 4 times while the experiment lasted 8 weeks. Data were collected on daily feed intake (DFI), daily weight gain (DWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR); feed cost/weight gain and feed cost/day were calculated. Blood samples collected through jugular vein puncture were analyzed for haematological indices such as white blood cells (WBC), red blood cell and platelet count. The CPM diets with or without SSF gave comparable (P&gt;0.05) pigs’ growth performance to what was obtained for pigs on the maize based diets in terms of DFI (1.26 – 1.33kg), DWG (0.32 – 0.40kg) and FCR (3.13 – 4.03). Values for WBC were within normal range, though they had significant (p&lt;0.05) variations. Other haematological parameters were not influenced (p&gt;0.05) by CPM inclusion. Feed cost/kg diet (N54.11 – N74.39) and feed cost/weight gain (N195.33 – N244.65) reduced insignificantly (P&gt;0.05) with CPM inclusion in the diets of pigs. It was concluded that cassava peel meal can totally replace maize with or without enzyme supplementation in the diets of growing pigs for optimal performance at reduced cost. O. T Irekhore, O. M Adeyemi, O.M.O Idowu, O.S. Akinola, K.O Bello Copyright (c) Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical Properties of Selected Poultry Feeds from Commercial Feed Millers in Ilorin, Nigeria Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick mash ranged between 1.40 and 6.60 x 105CFU g<sup>-1</sup> while values obtained for the grower mash were 2.80 and 7.70 x 105 CFU g<sup>-1</sup>. Similarly, Total fungal counts ranged between 2.20 – 8.90 x 106 and 5.60 – 14.0 x 104 CFU g<sup>-1</sup> for the chick mash and grower mash respectively. These counts were irrespective of the feed producer. A total of twelve microorganisms comprising seven bacterial and five fungal species were isolated. The organisms were tentatively identified as <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Coccidiolodes immitis </em>and<em> Geotrichum candidum</em>. The pH and titratable acidity ranged between 5.0 – 6.8 and 10.80 – 20.00mg/100g respectively. Proximate analysis of the chick mash revealed the moisture content which ranged between 11.10 – 14.09%, crude protein 22.01 – 25.12%, total ash 8.70 – 12.50%, crude fat 3.20 – 5.05%, crude fibre 4.5 – 6.12% and total carbohydrate 50.49 – 57.21%. The range of values obtained for the grower mash were moisture content 7.29 – 9.31%, crude protein 12.47 – 16.85%, total ash 4.74 – 6.87%, crude fat 3.25 – 6.30%, crude fiber 5.65 – 9.45% and total carbohydrate 56.40 – 61.11%. The implications of these findings were discussed. P. Folakemi Omojasola, Rowland Monday Kayode Copyright (c) Assessment of the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in livestock feeds in Nigeria Cassava is an important crop in the tropics. It contains about 92.2 percent carbohydrates and 3.2 percent protein in its dry matter. However, there is a dearth of information on the current trend of cassava and cassava products as alternative energy feedstuff for the livestock industry. This study was conducted in three states of southwest Nigeria on the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in livestock feeds. Simple random technique was used to select a total of 35 feedmillers in Ogun, Oyo and Osun States. Primary data were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result revealed that over one-third (38.35%) of the feedmillers had been in business for over 20years and 90% majorly produce feed for poultry birds. Out of the four common energy feedstuffs utilized in livestock feeds, maize was considered by the majority (93.55%) as the most preferred while 16.13% of the respondents used cassava as enegry feedstuff in the formulated rations. Feed millers (35.48%) rarely make use of cassava in their feed production while 38.71% never included cassava in the feeds. About 20% of the respondents use less than 5tons of cassava in their feed formulation per day. High cost, high water content and spoilage were main factors reported to be militating against cassava utilization by the feedmill industry. The study concluded that yield and processing method should be improved upon, if cassava is to compete favourably with maize and be a preferred future feedstuff for livestock. K.O. Bello, A.M. Adetoye, O.T. Irekhore Copyright (c) Women Farmers’ Contributions to Maize Production in Afijio Local Government of Oyo State The study investigated the contributions of women farmers to maize production in Afijio Local Government area, Oyo state. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 128 women farmers as sample size for the study. Data collected through interview schedule were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and mean while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi-square were used to test the relationships that exist between selected socioeconomic characteristics and contributions of women farmers to maize production. Results revealed the mean age of respondents was 45years, 83.5% of respondents were married and 41.4% of the respondents had no formal education. High percentage of the respondents (82.5%) engaged in farming for both commercial and subsistence purposes, and activities such as, planting, fertilizer application, harvesting, processing, storage and marketing were performed by women farmers whereas ridging, land clearing and weeding were considered laborious and were usually contracted to hired labour. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis showed that age (r = 0.950, P&lt;0.05), farm size (r = 0.174, P&lt;0.05), household size (r = 0.354, P&lt;0.05) while the results of Chi-square analysis revealed that educational status (ᵡ<sup>2</sup> =36.864 P&lt;0.05), marital status (ᵡ<sup>2</sup> =19.615, P&lt;0.05) have significant association with contributions of women farmers to maize production in the study area. Hence, the study recommended that female education (through adult literacy) be intensified, young women be encouraged to be more involved in maize production, women should form themselves into group to learn techniques of trapping farm pests and in time of surplus, women maize farmers should form supply cooperatives to transport their produce to areas where it commands higher prices. A. I. Badmus, G. O. Oyelere, A. O. Aremu, S. J. Orija, T. O Atigbi Copyright (c) Farmers’ Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South-Western Nigeria: Implications for Rural Economy <p>The modern industrial agriculture had created an array of ecological and equity problems through the introduction of high input agricultural technology such as heavy machinery, irrigation and agrochemicals. This approach favours the rich farmers at the expense of poor farmers because it is not scale neutral. This study examined the perception of farmers with respect to sustainable agriculture that produces abundant food devoid of the earth’s resources depletion. Amultistage sampling technique was used to select 480 crop farmers in three states (Oyo, Osun and Ekiti) of the south-west, Nigeria. Data were collected with the use of structured interview schedule and described using frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the existence of relationships between the pairs of variables (age, year of formal education, farming experience, farm size and farmer’s perception).. This study was able to examine farmers’ disposition toward sustainable agriculture. Farmers were favourably disposed to the practice of sustainable agriculture and realized its potentials as an alternative to industrial agriculture, a profitable venture, capable of providing a healthy family income that would improve the rural economy. Extension agency should intensify efforts through collaboration with relevant non-governmental organisations to keep farmers abreast of the sustainable agriculture practices and benefits.<br /><br /></p> R. G. Adeola, S. I. Adetunbi Copyright (c) Awareness of Cassava Peel Utilization Forms among Cassava Processors in Rural Communities of Southwest, Nigeria Significant quantities of generated peels are been thrown on dumping sites in southwest, Nigeria thereby constituting a source of environmental pollution. This study assessed the awareness of cassava peel utilization forms among cassava processors in rural communities of southwest, Nigeria. Interview guide was used to elicit information from 200 cassava processors through a multistage sampling technique. Data were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Result revealed that majority of the cassava processors were women (76.5%), married (75.0%), and members of cassava processing associations (89.5%) with 73.0% having at least primary education. The mean age and cassava processing experience were 53.01 and 22.76 years respectively. About 23.0% of the processed cassava tubers constituted peels. The study also revealed that 50% of the cassava processors discarded peels as waste, 26% sold generated peels while 24% fed the peels to their livestock. Also 93.5% of the cassava processors were not aware of any cassava peel utilization technology. Chi-square analysis revealed that significant association existed between existing practice on cassava peel utilization (χ2=17.341, p&lt;0.05) and cassava processors’ awareness of cassava peel utilization forms. The study concluded that substantial quantity of peel been generated is discarded as waste due to lack of awareness of cassava peel utilization technologies in the study areas. The study therefore recommended that improved technologies on the utilization of cassava peel should be popularized through result demonstration among cassava processors in southwest, Nigeria. O. F. Odediran, O. R. Ashimolowo, C. I. Sodiya, L. O. Sanni, K. Adebayo, W. G. Ojebiyi, A. S. Adeoye Copyright (c) Willingness to Venture into Agriculture-related Enterprises after Graduation among Final Year Agriculture Students of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta This study examined willingness to venture into agriculture-related enterprises after graduation among final year agriculture students of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) by randomly sampling 120 final year students from the three agriculture colleges in the university with the aid of structured questionnaires. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that higher proportions of the students were males (53.6%), Christians (74.1%), with mean age of 24.08±2.37 years and had parents who were well educated. Majority (85.7%) were willing to venture into agriculture-related enterprises with livestock production enterprise (67.7%) been the most preferred enterprise. Major reasons for students’ willingness were identified to include students’ desire to be job creators and self employed, lucrative nature of agriculture and encouragement received during training. Lack of credit loan facilities for agriculture graduates and unavailability of infrastructural facilities such as storage, processing and marketing accesses were major reasons hindering students’ willingness to venture into agriculture-related enterprises. Chi-square analysis showed a significant association between students’ marital status (χ<sup>2</sup> = 14.368, p&lt;0.05) and their willingness to venture into agriculture-related enterprises after graduation. This study concluded that Nigerian agriculture can still contribute significantly to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product. For sustainable development to take place, this study recommended that affordable credit loan facilities should be made available to agriculture graduates as this will sustain their willingness to venture into agriculture-related enterprises. W. G. Ojebiyi, O.R. Ashimolowo, O. F., Odediran, O.S. Soetan, O. A Aromiwura, A. S. Adeoye Copyright (c) Farmers’ Perception towards Organic-based Vegetable Produc-tion in Ilaro Agricultural Zone, Ogun State, Nigeria It is well established that organic farming is a production system that sustain the health of the soils, ecosystems and people. This study assessed the small-scale farmers’ perception towards organic based vegetable production in Ilaro agricultural zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the selection of 85 respondents for the study. Data were obtained using a structured interview schedule. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results indicated that the mean age of the respondents was 30 years and 48.2% of the respondents were married. The major determinants of organic based vegetable production were information from extension agents (18.8%) and consumer’s requests (17.7%). Also, the respondent’s major perceived effect of organic vegetable production were; organic vegetable is environmentally friendly ( ̅χ=4.32) and free from any synthetic chemical ( ̅χ=4.10). There were significant association between educational status (χ<sup>2</sup>=1.923, df=5, p&lt;0.05) and perceived effect of respondents. Also, there was positive and significant relationship between sources of information of organic vegetable production (r = 0.235*, p&lt; 0.05), age (r = 0.195**, p&lt; 0.05), and perceived effect of respondents. It was concluded that organic based vegetable production is a panacea for sustainable agriculture. C. O. Adamu, M. O. Oose, N. A. Bello Copyright (c) Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate Composition and<i> In Vitro</i> Rumen Fermentation Techniques This study estimated the proximate composition and in vitro gas production parameters of rice husk, bean waste, citrus pulp and maize stover, in a rumen incubation system. The incubation was for 24 h with measurement of gas production volume over incubation periods of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 hours. The crude protein ranged 1.92 to 11.75% and the crude fibre ranged between 9.68 and 45.09%. The potential gas production (a+b) was rated highest in both citrus pulp and maize stover (48.33 ml), next was bean waste (42.00 ml) and lowest was rice husk (25 ml). The ranges of values of metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and short chain fatty acids(SCFA) were 6.33 to 9.24 MJ/kg DM, 52.70 to 64.69 % and 0.94 to 1.09 μmol respectively. The values of ME, OMD and SCFA ranked as, citrus pulp &gt; maize stover&gt; bean waste &gt; rice husk. The higher values obtained for the potential gas production (a+b), ME, OMD and SCFA in citrus pulp and maize stover could imply higher nutrient availability for the rumen micro-organisms. The results revealed that citrus pulp and maize stover could be of higher nutritional value in ruminants feed than bean waste, while rice husk was lowest. G. O Tona, D.O. Ogunbosoye, M.O. Ayano Copyright (c) Effects of Different Strategies Adopted by Rural Women on their Food Security in Oyo State The study assessed the effects of different strategies adopted by rural women on their food securityin Oyo State. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted for this research work. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binomial logit model. Majority (93.5 percent) of the sampled women were married, while 6.5 percent of them were widowed. The mean age was 49 years. Backyard farming (= -1.000333343) had a negative but significant relationship to household food insecurity while reduction of meals (= 1.312270792) had a positive and significant relationship to household food insecurity. It was recommended that, program aimed at reducing poverty should be implemented in other to ensure that households were able to afford adequate mealsalso; backyard farming should be encouraged among rural women. E. O. Okunade, O. S. Olabode, A. O. Kayode Copyright (c) Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical Properties in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Cashew Plantation, Ogbomoso. <p>To study the spatial variability of soil morphological, physical and chemical properties in the Cashew plantation of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State of Nigeria eight profile pits were dug, described and examined. The result of the analysis and the variability grouping put colour value in AP and B<sub>1</sub> as least variable. Stoniness (AP) and structure (AP and B<sub>1</sub>) were moderately variable properties. Colour (AP, B<sub>1</sub> B<sub>2</sub> and B<sub>3</sub>), structure (B<sub>2</sub> and B<sub>3</sub>), stoniness (B<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub> and B<sub>3</sub>), concretion (AP B<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub> and B<sub>3</sub>) and boundary forms (B<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub> and B<sub>3</sub>) have extremely variable properties. pH (H<sub>2</sub>O and KCl), Na<sup>+</sup> base saturation were least to variable. Fe<sup>2+</sup>, cu <sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, k<sup>+</sup>, CEC, Ex. Acidity, extractable Mn<sup>2+</sup> , organic carbon (g/kg), organic matter (g/kg), and available phosphorus were extremely variable soil properties.<br />The available moisture of soil was very low thus water holding capacity (WHC) and wilting point (WP) of the soil was very low. .The gravel content of the land was high at the surface and reduced down the slope... Bulk density parameter of the land was very high at the surface. The land was very low in plant nutrients, this result show that the soil of the cashew plantation is highly variable and that management techniques that would be flexible enough to carter for the variation noticed should be adopted, such as organic fertilizer application.</p> O. O. Olatunji, E. A. Ewetola Copyright (c) Baker’s Willingness to Utilize High Quality Cassava Flour (Hqcf) for Bread Production: Experience From Ogun State, Nigeria One of the major reasons for introducing High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) inclusion in bread is to reduce its cost of production. The study thus evaluated baker’s willingness to utilize HQCF for bread production in Ogun State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to elicit information from 187 selected bakers. Results showed that 79.6% of the bakers were male, with a mean age of 39.5 years. The average year of bakery establishment was 10.7 years, with an average bread production period of 5 days per week, mean bread production of 361.0 loaves. Majority, 96.1% of the bakers were willing to utilize HQCF in bread production. In addition, 79.0% of the bakers would accept HQCF if it is readily available and 72.6% were willing to utilize readily mixed HQCF with wheat flour. Pearson Product Moment Correlation revealed a significant relationships (p&lt;0.05) between willingness to utilize and quantity of bread loaves produced per day (r = 0.280); year of bakery establishment (r = 0.253); awareness of cassava inclusion policy (r = -0.273); awareness of potential value of HQCF inclusion in bread production (r = -0.340) and the bakers’ willingness to utilize HQCF. The study concluded that bakers were willing to utilize HQCF for bread production in the study area. O. M. Olayimika, M. O. Oose, O. S. Apantaku, A. A. Adebowale, O. R. Ashimolowo Copyright (c) Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of Agricultural Produce Among Women Marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural of Oyo State, Nigeria This study assessed the corrupt practices in marketing of agricultural produce among women marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study; while structured interview schedule was employed to obtain data from fifty (50) women marketers from five selected markets in each LGA of the zone. Data collected were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that (40.0%) of the sampled women were above 50 years of age; and most (70.0%) the women sampled were married and literate with different educational backgrounds and years of marketing experience. The Sampled women engaged in marketing of tomato/pepper (32.0%); rice/bean (32.0%); maize (26.0%); yam/cassava (38.0%); orange/pineapple (8.0%). The study identified different corrupt practices associated with marketing of agricultural produce in which adulteration of processed agricultural products ranked first with WMS of 2.36; while sales of poor quality produce ranked least with WMS of 0.20. There is significant relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of women marketers and their perceived level of severity of identified corrupt practices associated with marketing of agricultural produce. The study therefore recommended that government should improve on her effort in standardizing the measurement unit and enforce its usage through the regulatory bodies set up for this task. E. Ayanwuyi, J.O. Akintonde, A.O. Tiamiyu Copyright (c) Fresh fish (<i>Clarias gariepinus</i>) marketing system in major towns of Ibarapa zone, Oyo State, Nigeria This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders. Purposive and simple random sampling procedures were adopted in the study. The data were analyzed by descriptive method which involves percentages, frequency distributions, market margin and regression. The study showed that women (85%) formed the highest number of fish traders in Ibarapa zone, women of age 30 years and above formed the bulk of the fish traders (70%), seventy (70%) were married, and ninety- five (95%) of the respondents were educated and their source of capital investment was through personal saving. The fish traders recorded high sale in the evening and determined their market price by size. All fish traded internally moved through the processors, no intermediary was involved in dealing with fish distribution and marketing system. A great amount of profit was made by all the processors in the market. The marketing margin was 24.24 % and marketing efficiency was 22.46%. It was recommended that government should create a more enabling environment for more people to go into aquaculture so as to beat the seasonality of fresh fish supply in the towns. A. O. Ayanboye, Z. O. Oluwafemi, R. A. Rafiu Copyright (c) Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals against Four Insect Pests of Honey Bees (<i>Apis mellifera</i> L.) The study evaluated the effectiveness of methanol, n-hexane and aqueous leaf extracts of <em>Ocimum gratissimum, Carica papaya, Tithonia diversifolia, Ageratum conyzoides </em>and<em> Azadirachta indica</em> in the management of four insect pests of honeybees namely; acrobat ant (<em>Crematogaster lineolata</em>), small hive beetle (<em>Aethina tumida</em>), lesser wax moth (<em>Achroia grisella</em>) and greater wax moth (<em>Galleria mellonella</em>) in the laboratory. Test of contact toxicity of the extracts was conducted by topical application of 2 ml of treatments at 10% w/v on five insects using standard method. Repellency study of the extracts was conducted using an area of preference test. N-hexane extracts of all the plants caused 100% mortality of all the insects within 6 hour. Methanol extract caused between 90% and 100% mortality of all the insects except <em>A. tumida</em>. Aqueous extract of all the plants cause 100% mortality of <em>C. lineolata</em>, but induce no mortality of <em>A. tumida.</em> Mortality of other insects treated with aqueous extracts of the plants varied between 15% and 100%. The % repellence of<em> A. grisella</em> by plant extracts and cypermethrin varied between 45% and 90% and were not significantly (p&gt;0.05) different from each other, while that of A. tumida varied between 35% and 78%. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of the five plants had repellence and insecticidal effects on the four insect pests of bees and could be considered as bioactive candidate for management of the insects. Olufemi R. Pitan, Adesoji T. Kehinde, Adebola A. Osipitan, A. A. Ademolu, Oluwasegun A. Lawal Copyright (c)