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The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene has been reported to be implicated in the predisposition to essential hypertension (EH). This association may depend on ethnic and genetic backgrounds. The objective of this study was to determine if the possible I/D polymorphism in the Bantu ethnic group of Cameroon is associated with EH. Data were analyzed from 60 patients and 50 healthy controls in order to access the risk factors of EH in this ethnic group. Comparison of gene and allele frequency distributions between the two populations revealed that systolic and diastolic blood pressures, age, family history and lack of physical exercise were risk factors of EH in this ethnic group. Comparison of means of age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as the proportions of individuals with a family history of EH and lack of physical exercise were higher in the hypertensive than the normotensive group (p < 0.05). In addition, Comparison of genotype and allele frequencies between the two populations did not reveal statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Moreover, analyses of relationship between ACE I/D gene variants and EH did not reveal any association (p > 0.05). Consistently, the two groups also did not present with differences in I and D allele distribution (p > 0.05). These results suggest that EH is not associated with ACE I/D polymorphism.
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Keywords: ACE, Gene polymorphism, SWR, Cameroon