CD4+ count and Nitro-Blue Tetrazolium reduction rate of neutrophil in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Sokoto Metropolis
Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It is known to cause malfunction of the immune cells thereby predisposing to profiles of morbidity and fatality. The current study evaluated the functional activity of neutrophils and lymphocyte sub set CD4+ count) in newly diagnosed HIV – infected adults in Sokoto, Nigeria. A total of 126 male and female adults were recruited for the study, comprising of 64 newly diagnosed HIV– infected subjects and 62 age-and sex-matched apparently healthy individuals as controls. CD4+ cells were enumerated using flow Cytometric method and neutrophil phagocytic activity was determined using Nitro- Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) Reduction test. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and independent sample t-test for comparison of means. P-value less than or equal to 0.05 (P ≤ 0.05) was regarded as statistically significant. The CD4+ count and neutrophil ingestion rate of NBT were significantly (P = 0.000) lower in newly diagnosed HIV- infected subjects compared with the values in control. The CD4+ count and formazan generated by neutrophil were significantly (P = 0.024 and 0.012 respectively) higher in newly diagnosed HIV– infected female compared with male subjects. The decreased CD4+ count and neutrophil phagocytic activity in ART-naïve HIV- infected subjects is an indication that HIV suppresses both innate and adaptive arms of immune response. However, this effect was more pronounced in male subjects. The possible mechanism for this gender differences are discussed.
Keywords: Neutrophil phagocytosis, CD4+, NBT, HIV, Sokoto.