Antihypertensive effect of extracts from Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii in the Wistar rats
Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii (CA) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including hypertension. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of the plant on high blood pressure. The crude aqueous extract of CA has undergone a liquid-liquid fractionation with increasing polarity solvents. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by using the thin layer chromatography method. The pharmacological effect was evaluated in Wistar rats made hypertensive by administering the N (ω) -Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester (L-NAME). The crude extract was administered at 500 mg / kg (b/w) and the fractions (aqueous, butanol, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) at 30 mg / kg (b/w). Blood pressure was measured by a non-invasive caudal arterial measurement method. Flavonoids, coumarins terpens, anthracens were detected diversely distributed either the crude extract or in the fractions. The crude aqueous extract induced a significant decrease in blood pressure from 155.6 ± 9.28 mm Hg to 106.00 ± 8.27 mm Hg. On the other hand, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions exerted the highest effects among the fractions by reducing the blood pressure respectively from 139.8 ± 6.83 mmHg to 98.6 ± 8.38 mmHg and to 106.6 ± 6.80 mmHg. The results obtained justify the traditional use of the leaves of CA in the treatment of high blood pressure.
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Keywords: Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii, medicinal plant, L-NAME, high blood pressure, Wistar rat, liquid-liquid chromatography