Effect of high fat ketogenic diet on some cardiovascular and renal parameters in Wistar albino rats
Ketogenic diet is used in weight control. This study aimed at determining the effect of the consumption of this high fat, low carbohydrate diet on plasma viscosity, lipid profile, serum and urine creatinine, urea, electrolytes and urinary pH. Forty Wistar rats grouped into experimental (A) and control groups (B) were used. Experimental group was fed with 65% fatty diet; control group was fed with normal rat chow for eight weeks. Fasting samples were collected at the end of the study for analysis. Biochemical analyses were done using spectrophotometric method, electrolytes were assayed by the ion electrode selective method, plasma viscosity was analysed using the Reid and Ugwu method and urinalysis strip was used to measure urinary pH. A significant increase in serum (0.866±0.031) and urinary (5.470±0.424) creatinine urinary sodium (147.3±23.60), chloride (136.0±23.90), bicarbonate (1570±1065) and pH (7.60±1.63) were observed in the experimental group when compared with serum values of control group (0.6600±0.060) and urinary (1.700±0.230) creatinine, sodium (35.60±18.92), chloride (30±17.05), bicarbonate (800±184.4) and pH (6.8±0.3). A significant decrease in total cholesterol (95.60±2.64) and LDL Cholesterol (43.60±2.16) concentrations were observed in the experimental group when compared with the control group, total cholesterol (132.8±10.7) and LDL Cholesterol (69.00±10.80). This study also showed a significant increase in weight of control groups (initial weight (g) 135.2±5.115, final weight, 151.2±38.3) while there was no significant increase in weight of the experimental group (Initial weight 170.6±11.95, final weight170.6±11.21). There was no significant difference in the other parameters when both groups were compared. These findings have clearly shown that intake of high fat ketogenic diet is not harmful to the heart, however the increase in serum creatinine in the experimental group could be as a result of the effect of the diet on the kidney or it could be due to muscle wastage which might be responsible for maintenance of their body weight. Increased urinary sodium excretion could lead to increased loss of fluid which can also give an impression of weight loss.
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Keywords: Ketogenic diet, Cardiovascular, Renal, plasma viscosity, lipid profile, electrolytes
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