Vasodilator effect of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes, Calotropis procera and FACA, a mixture of these two plants
Root bark extracts from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam (Rutaceae) and Calotropis procera Aït (Asclepiadaceae) were used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for several diseases particularly sickle cell anemia. Authors reported here vasorelaxant effect of these plants on rat isolated aorta. Z. zanthoxyloïdes (cumulative addition) produces a concentration-dependent relaxation on the aorta. Maximal effects are respectively of 60.34 ± 2.34 and 100% in the presence and in the absence of endothelium. C. procera extract induces a more relaxing effect on endothelium-denuded aorta (Emax = 59.78 ± 2.13% and 100% in presence and absence of endothelium respectively). FACA, the mixture of these two plants also induces vasorelaxation (Emax = 100%), with better effect in the presence of endothelium (EC50 = 2.76 ± 0.38 mg/mL and 4.90 ± 0.69 mg/mL in presence and absence of endothelium respectively). Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of FACA was inhibited by L-NAME; this clearly indicates that NO is involved in aorta relaxation process by FACA. Taken together this study revealed that FACA and its components possess vasodilator effect. This vascular property of FACA may be involved in the amendment of sickle cell crisis through inhibition of vaso-occlusion process.
Keywords: Sickle cell anemia, phytotherapy, rat aorta, endothelium