International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0pt; margin-right:0pt; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0pt; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --><!--[endif] --> <p class="MsoNormal" style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; line-height: 140%;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;">The <em>International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences</em> (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, pathology, health sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, biotechnology, </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;">biostatistics, bioinformatics,</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;"> environmental biology, hydrobiology, food science, nutrition, agricultural sciences, agropastoralism, animal production, wildlife, botany, ethnobotany, forestry, agroforestry and agrogeology. It is also devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of chemistry including chemistry of natural products, organic synthesis, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, industrial chemistry, clinical chemistry, hydrochemistry, agrochemistry, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. IJBCS publishes original research papers, critical up-to-date and concise reviews on topics of current interest, and short communications. It aims to serve all bioscientists and all chemists. </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;">Six</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;"> issues are published per year.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; line-height: 140%;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;">Language of Publication: French, English </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%; margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; line-height: 140%;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.5pt; line-height: 140%; font-family: Arial;">Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a id="yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1482604323459_9148" title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> en-US <p>Submission of a paper for publication implies the transfer of the copyright from the author(s) to the publisher upon acceptance. International Formulae Group is therefore the copyright holder after publication of an article in <em>International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences,</em> and published articles should not be used for commercial purpose without the written consent of the Editor-in-Chief. They are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License</a>.</p><p> </p> (Prof. Donatien Gatsing) (Journal manager) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 08:51:24 +0000 OJS 60 Challenges and solutions for the eradication of sanitation backlogs in the policy context of Free Basic Sanitation <p>Despite the constitutional obligation for municipalities to provide Free Basic Sanitation (FBSan) services to all, many people living in informal settlements in South Africa are still lacking access to adequate sanitation facilities. This study used qualitative methods to examine challenges and identify solutions for the eradication of sanitation backlogs in informal settlement of South Africa in the policy context of the FBSan. Findings suggest that the disconnection between the policy and its application in practice has created a deep divide between the service providers and consumers as recipients of the services. Consumers’ perceptions and expectations are a major barrier to the acceptance of the sanitation services provided by municipalities, often resulting in violent protests. Service providers face challenges when addressing the disjuncture between what people aspire to and what is possible in providing sanitation services. These findings infer that consumers’ needs, sanitation practices and settlement conditions should be thoroughly examined prior to the selection and deployment of sanitation facilities in informal settlements. Consumers should be engaged and involved in the choice of sanitation technologies and facilities. Such engagement should evolve around various sanitation technologies and facilities applicable to the nature and context of informal settlements, so as to address negative perceptions, attitudes and behavior concerning services provided by municipalities. Addressing challenges related to the eradication of the sanitation backlogs in the policy context of FBSan services needs to be grounded in the clarification of sanitation policy, a deep understanding of consumers’ needs, challenges and practices as well as settlements conditions, coupled with meaningful consumers’ participation at various stages of the decision-making process and coordination amongst institutions involved. Municipalities need to engage all stakeholders (mainly consumers) in order to ensure that the selected infrastructure and service level deployed are consensual. Unless subjective clauses of the FBSan policy are clarified, monitoring, enforcement and accountability mechanisms established and implemented and, consumers are engaged in the decision making processes, the eradication of sanitation backlogs in informal settlements as currently planned may not materialize.</p> C. Muanda, J. Goldin, R. Haldenwang Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of physical conditions and proposed best management practices of domestic storage tanks supplied by a water utility in a rapidly growing city <p>The physical conditions of domestic storage tanks for customers supplied by a water utility were assessed in Kampala, a rapidly growing City in Uganda. A longitudinal assessment of 372 storage tanks in 6 sampled administrative Wards with a minimum of 6 samples collected from each site in both wet (March-May) and dry (June-August) months of 2017 was carried out. A set of guiding questions were used to establish tank conditions with a YES or NO response and a range of low to critical risk rating. It was revealed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p=0.001) between tank physical conditions and quality of stored water. Two of six Wards in the City had high levels of water contamination related to domestic water storage tanks with poor sanitary conditions and contaminated water with E. coli. The study therefore revealed that the physical conditions and management of domestic water storage tanks have an effect on water quality. This is important information for a water utility as it means that it is not enough to supply safe water if the quality may deteriorate upon storage at the consumer premises. A routine inspection checklist and consumer guidelines for domestic storage tank management are proposed.</p> E. W. Makoko, E. Wozei Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development of optimal pump schedules for improved energy efficiency in water supply systems (case of NWSC) <p>The water utility in Uganda (NWSC) was under pressure from regulators, environmentalists and board members to reduce energy costs. However, achieving energy efficiency in the water distribution systems of Kampala that is characterized by variable demands and prescribed pressures would be impossible if this utility continued operating on trial and error methods. This research was undertaken in the year 2016-2017 and aimed at exploring how pump schedule optimization could enable NWSC to deal with the challenge of high energy costs and improve water utility performance. In this research, the energy consumption of existing pumps was obtained from historical data, data was diagnosed and based on the diagnostic findings, decision variables were selected and optimal pump schedules were formulated. The formulated schedules were applied to the Gabba Muyenga supply system of National Water and Sewerage Company (Uganda) as a proof of concept. The formulated pump schedules when applied on different pumps classified as models 1, 2 and 3 based on pump flow ratings and motor voltage ratings, results show that scheduling pump operations based on time of the day tariffs enabled NWSC to save about 0.373 Million kWh annually. On the other hand pump scheduling based on pressure, modulation had the potential to reduce water losses enabling NWSC to save 12 m3/hr equivalent to 0.068 million kWh per year in energy terms without compromising customer service levels and this was only for the established DMA within the case study area and not for the entire NWSC water distribution network. The data presented were obtained through field measurements, statistical analysis and hydraulic design calculations</p> Samuel Kikomeko, Jotham Sempewo Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Improving governance in the water sector through social accountability, communication and transparency <p>Network for Water and Sanitation (NETWAS, Uganda) in June 2008, with support from the World Bank Institute and in partnership with the Ministry of Water and Environment, Bukalasa Agricultural college which supplies the college and neighbouring homesteads with piped water, Wobulenzi Town Council which signed a contract with Trandit Limited a private company that supplies Wobulenzi core urban and a few peri urban wards, has been implementing a governance project. The aim of this project was to promote better governance in the water sector in Uganda by fostering transparency, social accountability and efficient communication activities. Two social accountability tools known as the Citizen’s Report Card (CRC) and the Community Score Card (CSC) have been used. A communication strategy was also developed to ensure better information flow between users and providers and other key stakeholders of the project, the process and the outcomes. This project engaged communities within the Town Council to work in partnership with the service providers to improve the quality of water service delivery. After two years of implementation what is clear is that social accountability works in improving water provision and improving relations among stakeholders.</p> Cate Zziwa Nimanya Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sawdust as a filtering media in sludge drying beds <p>Conventional wastewater treatment is a common method of domestic wastewater treatment in Sub Saharan Africa. Lubigi wastewater treatment plant (LSTP) in Kampala – Uganda is a unique wastewater treatment system combining treatment of on-site faecal sludge and domestic wastewater. High solids content of on-site faecal sludge mean large volumes of the same, thus limited sludge drying space. This means need to optimize sludge drying bed use (improving the sludge drying efficiency) by reducing their drying times. This study investigated use of wood sawdust as a filtering layer in the faecal sludge drying process. Comparison of performance between sand, fine and coarse sawdust as a filtering media was conducted at LSTP. Sludge shrinkage depth (cm) and moisture content (%) were key parameters used to analyze and determine the most ideal media for sludge dewatering. The study was conducted during both wet and dry seasons to determine the impact of seasonal changes. Dry season results showed a drastic decrease in the sludge depth (shrinkage) for all the three media types after a period of 8 days followed by a gradual decrease in sludge depth up to 28 days. This implies that effective dewatering happens for the first 8 days, which goes on for the rest of the remaining days. Overall, the best performing media was fine sawdust, coarse sawdust and lastly sand. Independent two sample t-tests assuming equal variances show that there is a significant difference between the mean sludge depth of sand and fine sawdust t(df) = 56, P&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean sludge shrinkage depth of fine sawdust and coarse sawdust. Similar results were obtained during the wet season. Comparisons of similar media types during the dry and wet seasons shows that the mean sludge shrinkage for the dry season were significantly lower than that of the wet season (P&lt;0.05). This implies that seasonal changes significantly affect the sludge dewatering. In terms of moisture content (MC), the results for dry season showed that fresh fine and fresh coarse wood sawdust achieved MC of 28% and 31% respectively after 28 days. Sand produced faecal sludge with a higher MC of 49% after 28 days. Similar results of the performance of the three types of media was observed during the wet season. In conclusion, fine sawdust performs better than coarse sawdust and sand media in faecal sludge dewatering. Sludge dewatering is affected by seasonal changes.</p> Gava Job Ssazipius, Maiteki James Miiro, David Muzoora, Sylvia Kpange, Mohammed Babu Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing waterborne toilets to reduce water usage in schools: experience from Kampala, Uganda <p>Over 620 million children worldwide lacked a basic sanitation service at their school and 12% of schools have facilities that are not usable. In Kampala’s public primary school, the pupil to stance area stands at 57:1 as compared to the required 40:1 by the public health regulation of 2000. A number of waterborne toilets have been constructed in schools to change the pupil to stance ratio from 118:1 to 57:1 in the period 2012- 2018. However, the administrators of schools have denied 07% of the toilets in schools to be accessed by pupils in an effort to control water bills. Administrators prefer pupils to use pit latrines to waterborne toilets because they use less water. This acerbates the inadequacy of access to sanitation in schools in Kampala. The objective of this work was to develop a waterborne sanitation facility that meets the school administrators’ preferences features of VIP latrine with water usage of less than 10 liters of water to flush the toilet. Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) has constructed water based toilets referred to as ‘channel flush’ toilets in public schools to reduce water usage. The channel flush toilet uses a channel as a receiving chamber for faecal matter which is flushed intermittently to the septic tank or bio-digester. Each toilet block is flushed four times a day with each flushing time using 60 liters of water. With the channel flush toilet, schools use about 4 liters per child per day on flushing toilets leading to a 90% water usage reduction. Emptying has been reduced from 30 cubic meters to 5 cubic meters per year. The toilet is recommended to be used in schools and public places such as markets and taxi parks.</p> Jade Zziwa Byansi, Richard Mutabazi, Joel Buwaguzibwa, Najib Bateganya Lukooya Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Faecal sludge briquettes production as a viable business in Kampala: a case study of a partnership between Water for People and National Water and Sewerage Corporation <p>Production of faecal sludge (FS) briquettes is not a new technology and is often used in the sanitation value chain as part of resource recovery efforts. Water for People in its mandate to develop appropriate and sustainable sanitation technologies sought to optimize the process of faecal sludge based briquette production. This was done by testing the different compositions of faecal sludge (100%, 80%, 60%, 50% and 40%) with other materials such as wood charcoal dust, agricultural waste and market waste to come up with a briquette that could compete favorably with charcoal and traditional briquettes on the market. The testing phase indicated that such briquette was at a composition of 40% faecal sludge and 60% charcoal dust and adequately provided the fuel properties required as well being safe from any pathogens or emissions. A briquette production facility was set up in collaboration with National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda at their treatment plant in Lubigi and has to-date produced more than 10 tonnes of briquettes and sold more than 3 tonnes since its inception. Further research is being carried out in production process efficiency and use of other raw materials such as agricultural waste and market waste to offset the wood charcoal.</p> Yvonne Lugali, Cate Nimanya, Brenda Achiro, James Maiteki, Joan Asimwe Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Barriers to inclusion in the WASH sector: insights from Uganda <p>In the WASH SDG Programme, Gender Equity and Social Inclusion (GESI) is a transversal topic in the different phases of the programme. As such, there was a GESI assessment done in 2018 during the inception phase of the programme to identify who is left behind and which barriers the socially excluded groups are often facing. From this assessment, our assumptions and expectations on barriers to inclusion were challenged by the relationships and differences we found in the field. In order to make sure “no one is left behind” it is vital to research why and how certain groups are excluded. We have to know the root causes of exclusion to reach inclusion and have to be context specific. There could be different types of barriers hindering socially excluded groups (e.g. social/cultural, economic, technical, political and technological) and these need to be well understood in order to address and remove them. WASH (Eau, ASsainissement et Hygiène) programmes need to go beyond inviting marginalised groups to participate in meetings. Attending a meeting does not naturally translate into the voices of the marginalized being heard or will not contribute to removing the barriers that hinder social inclusion. Incorporation of GESI into the WASH programme cycle can help addressing gender and inclusion differences and change these relations over time.</p> R. Kulanyi, M. Jonga, E. Vos, S. Van Soelen Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Household-level Fluoride reduction from drinking water using crushed fired clay – proof of concept <p>Residents of Bunyangabu District in Uganda have reportedly suffered from cases of dental fluorosis due to consumption of water with high levels of Fluoride from Ntabago Stream. A household-level sand filter incorporating crushed fired clay as an adsorbent was designed for a household to reduce the Fluoride concentration in their drinking water from the natural raw water levels (2-3 mgF/L) to permissible, healthy levels (0.5-1.0 mg/L). Pieces of fired clay bricks were crushed, and particles of 150 μm to 300 μm in size were selectively obtained by sieving. Stream water was filtered through replicate model layered filter columns of the prepared clay, sand (fine sand of 150 μm-2 mm; coarse sand of 2-5 mm), and gravel (6-15 mm). It was found out that fired clay layers of 2.5 and 5 cm thick reduce the concentration of Fluoride in water by up to 74%, to less than 1.0 mg/L. This was deduced by evaluating Fluoride concentration in both the clay and water before and after filtration, using the SPADNS Colorimetric method. Use of crushed fired clay for reduction in Fluoride concentration in drinking water is the focus of this paper. Additional work will optimise filter design to improve overall water quality.</p> E. Wozei, B. Nasasira, B. Kugonza Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Transboundary water governance and water conflicts in the Lake Victoria Basin: an adaptive and integrative management approach <p>Lake Victoria Basin is a transboundary natural resource shared by five East African Community countries. The Basin experiences unsustainable water resource utilization and management which creates conflicts among the users. This objective of this study was to examine the contribution of transboundary water governance systems in managing the water conflicts in the Basin. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and focused group discussions where respondents were clustered and purposively selected while quantitative data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS. Lake Victoria Basin Governance Performance Composite Index was also used to assess the effectiveness of governance systems in the Basin. The study findings revealed that: transboundary water governance systems with participation, integration, legal frameworks, collaboration, equity and adaptability, all with P &lt; 0.05 negatively and significantly influence the causes of conflicts and water management challenges; integration (20%) and equity (19%) contribute highly to the model; and both adaptive and integrative water governance systems are less effective with a score of 34% and 35% respectively. The study concludes that the current management systems require an adaptive and integrative governance system. The study recommends harmonization of regional laws and policies governing the Basin and involvement of local communities in decision making.</p> Nicholas Mwebaze Mwebesa Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Amélioration du rendement de réseau par la réduction des pertes physiques <p>Les volumes d’eau potable distribués se répartissent en 2 catégories : Eaux Facturées et Eaux Non Facturées (ENF). Les Eaux dites Facturées correspondent aux consommations facturées à l’abonné. Les ENF représentent toutes les autres eaux distribuées mais ne faisant pas l’objet d’une facturation, à savoir : les pertes physiques (fuites etc…), certaines eaux d’utilité publique (défense incendie etc…) et les défauts de comptage ou de facturation. En 2015, la SODECI a réalisé une étude diagnostic du fonctionnement du réseau d’eau potable d’Abidjan afin de mieux évaluer l’origine des pertes. Cette étude a consisté à déterminer la répartition des Eaux ENF par typologie de pertes et a permis de déterminer la répartition suivante : part des pertes physiques (22,45%), part des pertes comptages (3,04%), part de la fraude (9%) ; Soit un total de 34,5% de volume d’ENF. La proportion des pertes physiques sur le réseau d’Abidjan représentait 61,5% de l’ensemble des pertes diagnostiquées. Ces résultats ont conduit la SODECI à entreprendre des actions vigoureuses en vue de réduire leur impact et améliorer le rendement de réseau. Ces actions ont consisté à la gestion des pressions, la sectorisation, la recherche active de fuite, au renouvellement des vieux compteurs, la modernisation du comptage et la lutte contre la fraude. Le présent rapport fait état des actions liées aux pertes physiques, notamment la gestion des pressions, la sectorisation et la recherche active de fuites.</p> Joseph Arnaud N'Cho Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic en vue de l’élaboration d’une stratégie municipale concertée pour l’accès à l’eau potable et l’assainissement : Cas de la commune de Kye-Ossi au Sud-Cameroun <p>L’approvisionnement en eau potable dans de nombreuses communes Camerounaises reste un défi permanent à relever ; c’est le cas pour la commune de Kye-Ossi qui ne possède pas de réseau publique de distribution d’eau, ni un service d’assainissement. La présente étude menée dans cette ville visait à y réaliser un diagnostic de l’alimentation en eau potable et de l’assainissement de base. Pour se faire, nous avons réalisé une analyse documentaire du cadre institutionnel, des interviews semi structurés, les « focus group » et des enquêtes ménages. Il ressort de ce travail que l’insuffisance des fonds et l’absence de l’énergie électrique sont les principaux problèmes des acteurs de l’offre et la demande. 71% des populations consomment sans traiter l’eau des forages, 47% des ménages utilisent les latrines à fond perdu aménagées. Bien que 69% des ménages soient satisfaits de l’assainissement de base, 74% ne sont pas satisfaits de l’approvisionnement en eau potable. 36% des forages équipés de pompes à motricité humaine sont non fonctionnels. Tous les puits modernes sont fonctionnels. Des sept latrines publiques recensées, quatre sont privées et trois appartiennent à la commune. La mauvaise gestion et la mauvaise qualité des équipements sont les principales causes des pannes sur les ouvrages.</p> Boris Merlain Djousse Kanouo, Martial Dongmo Tsobeng, Mathias Fru Fonteh, Joel Moumbe Sagne, Barthelemy Lekane Ndongsong, Martin Sanou Sobze Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Proceedings Book of the 20th AfWA International Congress <p>The 20th AfWA International Congress and Exhibition was held from 24th to 27th February 2020, in Kampala, Uganda and aimed to bring together different water and sanitation professionals from various parts of the world. The congress was innovation and solution focused and addressed water and sanitation issues in Africa, new breakthroughs and innovations to accelerate access to water and sanitation for all. The overall theme of AfWAICE2020 was "New Breaking new grounds to accelerate access to water and sanitation for all in Africa." This theme is particularly relevant to the water and sanitation sector in Africa. Most African countries are now faced with immense water and sanitation challenges. Never before has the need to face the challenge - to share ideas and resources; to look for new breakthroughs and innovations; to cooperate between nations, between generations and between disciplines – been more urgent.</p> International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) Copyright (c) Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000