International Journal of Educational Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer <p class="Default"><strong>International Journal of Educational Research (IJER) </strong>is the official Journal of the Department of Educational Foundations, University of Lagos, Lagos-Nigeria. The Journal publishes articles concerned with research theory and practice or programme application in the field of Education and the Behavioural Sciences.</p> <p>IJER website: <a href="http://www.ijeredufoundations.com.ng">www.ijeredufoundations.com.ng</a></p> Department of Educational Foundations, University of Lagos en-US International Journal of Educational Research 1595-8485 <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The Articles published in this Journal are published under a CC BY-NC-SA license and is subject to copyright, reserved by the Department of Educational Foundations (with Educational Psychology), University of Lagos. All works (including texts, images, graphs, tables, diagrams, photographs and statistical data) may be used for non-commercial purpose, citing appropriately the original work. </span></span></p> Deviant behaviours in schools: Implication for counselling https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205018 <p>This study examines deviant behaviours in schools as well as implications for counselling. Deviant behaviour is considered to be strange and morally unacceptable. Types of deviant behaviours include examination malpractice, rape, bulling, stealing, truancy, lateness and sexual immorality were explored in the paper. Similarly, characterisotics of individuals with deviant behaviours were examined. Causes of deviant behaviours in schools, its effects, as well as theoretical explanation of deviant behaviours were considered in this paper. Various implications of deviant behaviour for counselling were presented. Finally the paper recommended the optimum utilization of these implications for counselling to curb this socially undesirable behaviour in our schools.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: deviant behaviour, deviance, curbing, counselling implication. </p> John Onyemauche Oparaduru Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 1 7 Types and levels of involvement in examination malpractice as perceived by undergraduates in Gombe State University https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205019 <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate types and levels of students’ involvement in examination malpractice as perceived by&nbsp; undergraduates at Gombe State University. This study is a descriptive survey. The population for this study was all undergraduates of Gombe State University drawn across five faculties of the University. Stratified sampling and random sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents. The instrument adopted for the study was a researcher-designed questionnaire tagged “Perceived&nbsp; Types and Levels of Involvement in Examination Malpractice Questionnaire” (PTLIEMQ). A percentage table was used to describe the demographic characteristics of the respondents and a pie-chart to answer research question 2. Also, the mean rating was used to answer the research question one. The null hypotheses generated were tested using Chi-square inferential statistics. The study revealed that the commonest type of examination malpractice among undergraduates at Gombe State University was a giraffe. It was also discovered that the greater proportion of the undergraduates sampled were averagely involved in examination malpractice. There was a significant difference in the level of students’ involvement in examination malpractice as perceived by undergraduates at Gombe State University based on gender, age, level, and faculty of study. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that more effort should be put in place to ensure the effective supervision of students during examinations to be able to curb giraffe. It was also recommended that concerted efforts should be made at improving the level of discipline among students through counseling services and there should be full implementation of the examination malpractice decree.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Examination, Examination malpractice, Undergraduate Students. </p> Meshak Bibi D.K Muhammad Umar Dahiru Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 8 15 Construction and validation of an instrument for evaluating teaching quality in Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205020 <p>This study sought to develop and validate an instrument for evaluating teaching quality in senior secondary schools in Ogun state, Nigeria. Instrumentation research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprised all Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students in Ogun State. Stratified sampling was used in selecting SS2 students and the teachers from all the 20 educational blocks in Ogun state. A total of 1580 students from the public schools were used for the study. Two research questions and two&nbsp; corresponding hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Following the items development and validation process, two instruments were developed which are extracted from various related literature; Student Evaluation of Teaching Quality&nbsp; Questionnaire; for students’ assessment of their own learning effectiveness and Teaching Quality Assessment Questionnaire; for evaluating teachers teaching quality by external evaluators (Quality Assurance Personnel). The hypotheses were tested using exploratory factor analysis for hypothesis 1, test -retest reliability for hypothesis 2. The result obtained includes; norms, for the<br>participants’ male and female (students and teachers) in the schools, high construct validity and reliability coefficient when compared with other standardized.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Construction, Validation, Instrument, Evaluation, Teaching Quality </p> Ikechukwu Peter Nwadinigwe Canice Enuma Okoli Jenniffer Chinyere Seidu Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 16 21 The place of educational administrators in promoting e- learning in Nigerian Universities for global competitiveness https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205021 <p>The study explored the place of educational administrators in promoting e- learning in Nigerian universities for global&nbsp; competitiveness. The study was guided by three specific purposes and three corresponding research questions. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The populations comprised all Faculty Deans, Head of Departments, Head different Units and lecturers of the Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. A simple random sampling technique was used while the sample size was two hundred respondents; comprising of seven Faculty Deans, twenty H.O.Ds, thirteen Unit Heads and one hundred and sixty lecturers drawn from different Faculties of the institution. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher with the title, “Roles of University Managers in promoting E-learning Questionnaire (RUMEQ)”. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validity, while a reliability coefficient of 0.78 was gotten using a Cronbach Alpha Reliability Estimate. The instrument was administered personally by the researcher while the data collected was analyzed in relation with the research questions; using mean and standard deviation. The benchmark for the acceptance value for each item was 2.50 and above. This indicates that any item with a mean score of 2.49 or below was not accepted and items with mean values of 2.50 and above were accepted. The study&nbsp; revealed that educational administrators of every university are major key players in the management of funds, provision of necessary facilities and staff training towards optimizing e-learning in Nigerian universities. It was recommended among others that Federal and State governments in Nigeria should show more commitments in funding university education in the country; while administrators<br>of universities should be more proactive in evolving viable option for financial sustainability in order to optimize e-learning in Nigerian universities.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Educational administrator, university, e-learning and global competitiveness </p> Patrick. N. Nwajioha Tochukwu Chukwu Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 22 32 Influence of students' and teachers' attitudes on adolescents' study habits in Secondary Schools in Educational District II of Lagos State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205023 <p>This study investigated adolescents' characteristic features and teachers’ attributes and their influence on the study habits of&nbsp; adolescents in Secondary Schools (SSS 11) in Lagos State. I H. The sample comprised two hundred (200) students which comprised sixty-nine (69) science-inclined, seventy-one (71) commercial-inclined and sixty (60) art-inclined students. The data were collected using the researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in the analyses of the data. The appropriate statistical tools used to test the generated hypotheses were Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient (PPMC) to establish the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the two variables in hypotheses one and two, and oneway ANOVA to compare the mean effects of the existing groups in the variable. The mean and the standard deviation were also determined. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Concerning teacher’s characteristics, the finding showed a calculated r-value of 0.45, which is positive and significant in magnitude than r-critical (r-crit. = 0.195). It indicated a positive relationship between teachers' characteristics and adolescents' study habits. For the students’ attitude, the calculated r-value of 0.36 is positively significant. It has further indicated a positive relationship between adolescents' attitudes and their study habits because both variables are correlated positively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Teacher Characteristics, Students' Attributes, Study Habits, Motivational Constructs, Learning Strategy, Metacognition </p> Nkiruka Nwosu Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 33 42 Effectiveness of integrative behavioural couple therapy and logotherapy on burnout experienced by the married persons in Ibadan Metropolis https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205024 <p>This study investigated the effectiveness of Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy and Logotherapy on burnout experienced by married persons in Ibadan metropolis. It examined the difference in the pretest and posttest mean scores of burnout experienced by married persons and it also determined the gender differences in burnout experienced by the married persons exposed to the three experimental conditions (Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy, Logotherapy and the control group). The study adopted experimental research design with the use of Pre-test/Post-Test control quasi design. A total of 125 married persons participated in the study. Couple burnout measure was used to gather data to test the two null hypotheses. The reliability coefficient was obtained using Cronbach's co-efficient alpha (0.78). The data collected were carefully analysed and the hypotheses were tested with the use of mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance statistics (ANCOVA) to determine whether a significant difference exists in the post-test scores of burnout experienced by the participants due to the three experimental conditions (Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy, Logotherapy and the control group). The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant difference in the post-test scores of the participants exposed to Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy and Logotherapy while participants in the control group reported no significant difference. There is no significant difference in the post test scores of burnout experienced by the participants due to gender. The study recommends Intergrative Behavioural Couple Therapy and Logotherapy as an effective therapy to reduce burnout among married persons.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Logotherapy, Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy, Burnout, Married persons. </p> Deborah Toyin, Adebiyi Bola O. Makinde Mopelola Olusakin Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 43 51 Analysis of the psychological effects of rape on the academic performance of pupils: An empirical investigation from the Nigerian dailies https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205025 <p>This study analyzed the effects of anti-rape laws and policy on offenders in Nigeria as well as its psychological effects on pupils and adolescents’ academic performance in Nigeria schools. The population of this study consists of rape victims and offenders across the country. The descriptive statistical results from this survey shows that about 89% of rape victims in Nigeria occur among girls between the age of 2-18 while 10% occur between the age of 18 and above among women of reproductive age. Meanwhile, the chances of boys/men being a rape victim is about 0.001%. The study also found a somewhat non-significant relationship between anti-rape laws and policy in Nigeria and the degree of punishments melted out on perpetrators of rape. Therefore, this study queried the efficacy of anti-rape laws and policy of Nigerian system to actually bring about revolution in the sexual violence against girls and women in Nigeria society. In addition, the statistical results from the correlation analysis carried out in this study also found a positive and significant association between the psychological trauma resulting from rape, pupils and adolescents academic performance in Nigeria schools as indicated by 0.9. Based on the outcomes of the empirical findings in this survey, this study recommends that, psychologists, teachers, counselors, parents and guardians should embark on awareness campaign through the media, fliers and classroom teaching on the importance of rape victims to speak out whenever they are being sexually abused or raped. To this end, the study also recommends that the international community, including the United Nations and African Union as well as all stakeholders should encourage and support Nigeria government in implementing fully all international and regional treaties, declarations, resolutions and recommendations aimed at condemning, prohibiting and preventing all acts of violence against women most&nbsp; especially rape.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Sexual violence, rape, anti-rape laws and policy, psychological trauma, rape victims, perpetrators of rape, characteristics of rape victims and offenders, pupils, adolescents, academic performance. </p> Ijeoma Martha Obibuba Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 52 68 Alcoholism and mental wellness among youths in Oyo metropolis: Implications for counseling https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205026 <p>Alcohol consumption has been associated with mental health all over the world. Poor mental health especially during adolescence no doubt has significant negative impact on their educational achievement as well as their behavior. In Nigeria today, alcohol&nbsp; consumption has contributed immensely towards increase in road accidents and Juvenile crimes. Many youths indulge in taking alcohol in order to belong or feel comfortable among their peers. Some take solace in alcohol consumption as an escape route from feeling of depression or unhappiness. Some identified negative consequences of alcohol consumption include risky sexual behavior, increased suicidal rate, violence, Juvenile delinquency, greater risk of accidents and illicit drug use. Hence it is considered a serious health challenge. This paper therefore investigated selected youths in Oyo Metropolis in South West Nigeria and their alcohol consumption with the aim of providing preventive measures in the reduction of their alcohol consumption and coping strategies to prevent the intake of alcohol altogether. The quasi-experimental research design was employed. 100 samples (50 male and 50female youths) were randomly selected. 5null hypotheses were raised and tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and T-test statistics to analyze the data generated at 0.05 level of significance. Results obtained revealed no significant relationship between religious background and alcohol consumption. No significant difference was found between gender and alcohol consumption among others. However, a significant relationship was found between alcohol consumption and relationship with others (peers and friends). Adequate recommendations were made based on the findings which include preventive approach to mental health problems and<br>parental responsibilities.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: alcoholism, alcohol consumption, mental health, mental Wellness, Juvenile delinquency </p> Mopelola Omoegun Kehinde Alli Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 69 82 Textbook evaluation: English teachers’ perspective of intensive English for Senior Secondary Schools https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205027 <p>Textbooks are meant to be used by not only students but teachers as well and they play a significant role in the overall learning&nbsp; process. This research focused on evaluation of English language textbook from teachers’ perspective using a cross sectional survey research design and an adapted checklist with 47 items. Seven teachers were used as sample drawn from four senior secondary schools that use Intensive English language textbook for senior secondary schools in Gombe metropolis. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts and percentages. Findings revealed that teachers are satisfied with the textbook in use as it caters for most of the needs of both&nbsp; teachers and learners of the English language at the senior secondary school level.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Evaluation, textbook, English language, checklist </p> Hussaini Hadiza Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 83 92 Analysis of the impact of reproductive health outcome on women labour force participation and earnings in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205028 <p>This study undertakes an empirical economic analysis of women reproductive health and labour force participation in Nigeria.&nbsp; Specifically, the study analyzed the impact of reproductive health outcome on women labour force participation and earnings in&nbsp; Nigeria. The study used mixed research methodology to study the research problem across the entire country. First, it uses a national representative quantitative data from the National Demographic Health Survey reports for 2003, 2008 and 2013 respectively. Secondly, cross-sectional micro- data were also collected from two study areas comprising one urban and one rural to test the validity of the hypothesis raised in this study. A questionnaire design, focus group discussions and key-informants interview were used to elicit information from respondents. The study used multi-stage sampling technique to select 400 women of reproductive age in the study areas. Various analytical tools such as chi-square, crosstabulations, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data collected. The study found that women’s reproductive health outcomes such as total fertility rate, child spacing and contraceptive prevalence rate have negatively impacted women’s labour force participation and earnings in the study areas. Hence, the negative reproductive health outcome has not given women the ample opportunity to develop the necessary capacities to engage in labour force&nbsp; participation. From the cross sectional survey, it was found that only 6.54% of the respondents practice family planning which is below the national benchmark of 64.34%. About 92.92% of the respondents had birth interval of less than two years which is against the government’s policy of two years child spacing. About 95.58% of the respondents married at less than 18 years which is against the&nbsp; government policy of 18 years age of marriage for women. Meanwhile, about 85% of the respondents have between 7 to 10 children and above per woman which is against the government’s policy of 4 children per woman. In addition, only 25.47% of the respondents have formal education while 30.86% are in active formal employment which is 100% against government’s policy of women literacy and formal employment rates in Nigeria. Therefore, the study concludes that reproductive health outcome does not have significant impact on women labour force participation and earnings in Nigeria. To this end, this study recommends that, there is need for government, key stakeholders in the private sector and non-governmental organizations to organize sensitization workshops for all religious leaders and household heads on the economic and health benefits of family planning and child spacing, in order to regulate the reproductive health behaviour’s of women so as to ensure their labour force participation in order to increase their lifetime earnings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: reproductive health outcome, women labour force participation and earnings, logistic regression model </p> Oluwaseyi A. Mohammed Peter P. Njiforti Sanusi A. Rafindadi Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 93 116 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education: a tool for national development https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205029 <p>Development is generally perceived as a social transformation of the society, projected to bring economic, social and material&nbsp; improvement in the life of the majority of the people with a view to gaining control over the environment. This paper recognizes the fact that Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education is an enabler of national development. It examined the role of STEM Education as a tool in national development. The paper highlighted some salient issues on STEM with the hope that the awareness therein will bring about the desired development and improvement of human life. Recommendations were made; it concluded that, with sound STEM Education, national development can be achieved.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Development, Education, Engineering, Mathematics, Science, Technology. </p> Mary Erasmus Sulai Erasmus Ibrahim Sulai Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 117 126 COVID-19 pandemic in the society: Basic issues and implications for counselling https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205030 <p>Fear and anxiety are adaptive animal defense mechanisms that are fundamental for survival and involve several biological processes of preparation for a response to potentially threatening events. However, when threat is uncertain and continuous, as in the current coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, fear and anxiety can become chronic and burdensome whereby they become excess in the face of events standing as stimulus for their cause. It is quite imperative to identify the causes of coronavirus in order to critically look at the way forward in managing this deadly disease that has changed almost the entire systems of the globe. The damage so far done by coronavirus all over the world and especially here in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. As a result of various<br>challenges of such like; Ebola outbreak between 2013 and 2014, the increase in fear and anxiety over the havoc this pandemic is generating globally and Nigeria in particular becomes uncontrollable. The rise in its spread becomes daily news. As a result, this article therefore examined some basic issues like the causes of coronavirus in Nigeria and world at large, the consequences of contracting coronavirus, control measures of fear and anxiety factors in the spread of this disease and its counselling implications were also&nbsp; outlined.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: COVID-19, Pandemic, Society, Issues, Counselling Implications</p> John Onyemauche Oparaduru Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 127 138 Population explosion in Nigeria: Causes, its effects on educational sector and the ways forward https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205032 <p>This paper treated the causes of population explosion and its effects on educational sector in Nigeria. Various past studies by researchers and personal experiences of the author as a Nigerian were critically examined. Causes of population explosion and its effects on educational sector were fully discussed. The paper went further to propose the various measures to be put in place to control the incoming birth rate by the Federal Government and Nigerians themselves. Among the proposed measures to control population explosion were executive and legislation policies, sex education and among others. The paper concluded that since the Federal Government is desirous to eliminate poverty, hunger, illiteracy, diseases and to provide effective food, healthcare and education to our future generations, then, the government should take the drastic steps to implement the stated measures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Birth rate, Causes, Educational Sector, Effects, Population Explosion, Solutions. </p> John Aduwa Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 139 144 Influence of school and family background on adolescents' study habits in secondary schools in Educational District II of Lagos State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205033 <p>This study investigated the impact of teaching methods, family background, and home environment on the students' study habits of senior secondary schools in Lagos state. The sample comprise two hundred (200) SSS II students comprising sixty-nine (69) science-inclined, seventy-one (71) commercial-inclined and sixty (60) art-inclined students. The hypotheses were tested using One-way Analysis of variance statistics and regression coefficient. The results confirmed that the relationship between teaching methods, family backgrounds, home environments and the students' study habits is statistically significant. The findings provided educators, teachers, and students with an understanding that teaching methods, especially student-centred methods, helped them adopt<br>effective and healthy study habits.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>- Teaching Methods, Teacher-Focused, Student-Focused, Family Background, Home Environment, Study Habits </p> Nkiruka Nwosu Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 146 161 Time, cost and construction of public primary school classrooms in southwestern, Nigeria (2020 - 2024) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijer/article/view/205036 <p>This paper employed a planning strategy to determine the time and cost of constructing classrooms in South-western public primary schools in Nigeria from the year 2020 to 2024. The paper embraced the mixed-method research design by employing the qualitative and quantitative approaches to gain an in-depth understanding of the variables investigated. The study population comprised 8401 public primary schools in the six Southwestern states of Nigeria. The study sample comprised 1092 schools, 15 architects and quantity surveyors using the Research Advisor. The purposive sampling technique was used to select three out of the six Southwestern states. In each state, the simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting the schools and their head teachers, architects and quantity surveyors to respond to the questionnaire. An official document containing the primary data on pupils' flow collected from the offices of Universal Basic Education Boards of the selected state was used to generate baseline enrolment figure and to&nbsp; corroborate the data that was provided by the schools under investigation. In particular, Primary School Pupils’ Flow Questionnaire (PSPF-Q) was administered on primary school head teachers, Cost Schedule Form Questionnaire (CSF-Q) on quantity surveyors and Time Schedule Form Questionnaire (TSF-Q) on architects. The results showed that N5,819,298,322.76 is the mean cost of constructing the required number of classrooms per state in Southwestern Nigeria in the year 2020, N7,820,342,573.22 in the year 2021, N10,363,911,641.54 in the year 2022, N13,585,830,755.00 in the year 2023 and N17,639,959,050.00 in the year 2024. Also, a maximum of 22 days, 15 hours is needed for the construction of one classroom based on the assumption that one worker will be allocated to each task per time. The study concluded that the government should be able to plan for the construction of the needed number of&nbsp; classrooms based on the time and cost estimate in this work.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Time, Cost, Construction, educational planning, public primary school </p> Omobola O. Gambo Adedapo S. Adelokun Copyright (c) 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 8 1 162 177