International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology

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Revised health and safety compliance model for the Ghanaian construction industry

Zakari Mustapha


The construction industry in Ghana is faced with employees’ negligence in obeying rules and regulations, and acts that conflict with health and safety. The purpose of the paper was to present the revised health and safety (H&S) compliance model for the construction industry based on a developed theoretical six factor model. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on the theoretical model to assess whether the variables were suitable for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA).The EFA carried out on the theoretical model led to the revision of the H&S compliance model. The extraction method employed on the theoretical six factor model during the EFA was Principal Axis Factoring with Oblimin Rotation (PAF Oblimin).Findings from the study show that Total Variance Explained had fourteen factors above 1.00. Further findings show that four factors were retained from the six factor theoretical model. In some cases few variables were combined with other factors to form new factors. The combination of the variables led to the formation of new factors with different latent constructs. The remaining two factors from the theoretical model also form part of the new constructs. Twelve factors were finally obtained from the EFA, with a minimum of three variables each. The factors with negative factor loadings indicate their weakness in the model because they cross load over another. Hence, two factors with highest number of negative factor loadings were dropped, remaining ten factors with good communalities above 0.3 as shown in the revised model.

Keywords: Compliance, exploratory factor analysis, Ghana, health and safety, model

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