International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research <p><em>International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research</em> (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries and elsewhere; as well as synthetic medications, orthodox medicines and pharmacological products in both developing and developed countries.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research 2315-537X <p><em>International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research </em>is an Open Access Journal under Creative Commons Licensing regulations. Thus, all articles published in IHJPR are categorised as CC-BY licensed. Inquiries above should be sent to the publisher at the address given as follows: <strong>Anthonio Research Publications, Anthonio Research Center, Anthonio Services Nigeria, P. O. Box. 960, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. </strong>OR<strong> </strong>E-mail: <a href=""></a></p> Hepatoprotective activity of n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of <i>Sida acuta</i> on thioacetamide induced liver injury in rats <p>This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of n-hexane and ethylacetate fractions of<em> Sida acuta</em> against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Thirty-five adult male albino wistar rats, grouped into seven groups (n=5 each) were used. Groups A-D served as the tests, while E-G served as control. The rats were fed as discussed in the methodology. Phyto-chemical analysis of <em>Sida acuta</em> was done using standard methods. Acute toxicity test revealed an oral LD50 of &gt;3000 mg/kg. Test administration was oral for 7 days prior to TAA intoxication. On the 8<sup>th</sup> day, after an 18-hour fast, TAA (200mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to all the groups except group G (normal control). Blood samples were collected 24hrs after TAA administration to assess the liver function of the rats (ALT, AST, ALP and Albumin levels). Results revealed a significant increase in the serum levels of ALP, AST and ALT, as well as a significant decrease in the serum Albumin levels due to TAA induced liver damage. Pre-treatment with both n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of<em> Sida acuta</em> reduced the toxic effect of TAA as indicated by a decrease in the levels of previously elevated liver parameters and an increase in the level of Albumin.</p><p><strong>Keyswords:</strong> Hepatoprotective, n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate, Sida acuta, Thioacetamide, liver function</p> C.O. Mgbemena C.N. Okwuosa A.S. Mene J.O. Nwofe E Akhaumere Copyright (c) 2016-08-17 2016-08-17 4 4 65 74 The effect of <i>Carica papaya</i> seed extracts on urea, creatinine and uric acid levels in Wistar rats <p>This study investigated the effect of <em>Carica papaya</em> seeds on renal function parameters. Male Wistar rats aged 7± 1weeks, and weighing 70.0-105.0g, were used for the study and the animals were divided into four groups -A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while B, C and D, served as test groups. The test groups were further subdivided into three -B1 – B3, C1 – C3 and D1 – D3 (n=4 each) and they received a combination of both ripe and unripe <em>Carica papaya</em> seeds; ripe <em>Carica papaya</em> seeds only; and unripe <em>Carica papaya</em> seeds only, respectively. At the end of the experimental period of six (6) weeks, blood samples were obtained from the groups and analyzed for urea, creatinine and uric acid levels using standard methods. The statistical analysis of the data obtained was performed using the SPSS package (version 20) and results showed a dosage dependent and statistically significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid levels irrespective of the type; suggesting that<em> Carica papaya</em>’s has capacity to induce alterations in renal function. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the inclusion of <em>Carica papaya</em> seeds in herbal preparations; particularly in those used for the management of kidney diseases.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Carica papaya</em>, Urea. Creatinine, Uric acid, Renal function</p> E.N.S. Igbinovia M Isah O.E. Edebiri M Uwuigbe K.O. Airhomwanbor O Eghrevba Copyright (c) 2016-08-17 2016-08-17 4 4 75 80 The effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum proteins in white albino rats <p>This study assessed the influence of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum total protein using 48 adult female rats in four groups -A as control and B, C and D as tests. The animals were further divided into two subgroups - <em>treatment</em> (A1 - D1; n=6 each) and<em> reversal</em> (A2 - D2; n=6 each). Groups A1&amp;A2 received normal feed and water only, while B1&amp;B2, C1&amp;C2 and D1&amp;D2, respectively received 0.03mg/kg of <em>Norethisterone enantate </em>intramuscularly once in 6 days for 3 estrous cycles; 0.03mg/kg of <em>Lynesternol</em> daily for 6 days and repeatedly for 3 estrous cycles; and a combination of 0.03mg/kg of <em>Ethinylestradiol</em> and 0.03mg of <em>Levonorgestrel</em> daily for 6 days and repeatedly for 3 estrous cycles. At the end of the<em> treatment phase</em>, blood samples were collected from groups A1 - D1 for laboratory analysis, while the treatments for groups B2 - D2, were suspended and monitored for same period (<em>reversal phase</em>) prior to blood sample collection and analysis. The results affirmed that steroidal contraceptives had capacity to induce significant elevation and reduction in levels of liver enzymes and serum total protein respectively; hence the call for caution to avoid unwarranted complications.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Liver enzymes, Serum, Steroidal Contraceptives, Total protein</p> P Iyomon E Nwangwa O.E. Edebiri Copyright (c) 2016-08-17 2016-08-17 4 4 81 85