Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in Thais
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome as defined by using the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria [modified the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria] and cigarette smoking in Thai subjects. Methods: This study was carried out among 254 smokers and 144 nonsmokers from suburban and urban residential areas in Bangkok, Thailand. All anthropometric variables, blood pressures, resting heart rate and biochemical parameters in each subject were measured. Results: The anthropometric variables, biochemical parameters, blood pressures and resting heart rate were not significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers, except for white blood cell count (WBC). Cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR =1.97; 95% CI=1.11-3.42) and the percentages of metabolic syndrome in smoker and nonsmoker Thais were 22.8% and 13.2%, respectively. Moreover, the number of cigarette smoking per day showed significant association with metabolic syndrome (p=0.047). Logistic regression analysis revealed that cigarette pack-years, resting heart rate, body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol were significantly increased risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with the increased risk of metabolic syndrome by using the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria in Thais.
Keywords: Smoker; Cigarette pack-years; Modified NCEP/ATP III criteria; Biochemical parameters; Anthropometric variables.