International Journal of Health Research The journal publishes original research articles, reviews, and case reports in health sciences and related disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields. Other websites related to this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> Poracom Academic Publishers en-US International Journal of Health Research 1596-9819 Copyright is owned by Poracom Academic Publishers Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Bark of <i>Entandrophragma utile</i> in Acute Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer Models <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The bark of E. utile is claimed in Nigerian traditional medicine to have antiulcer properties. We therefore tested its effectiveness in experimental acute gastric and duodenal ulcer models.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: Ulcers generated as lesions, from pin-point craters to larger eruptions, were quantified qualitatively for cold-restraint, immobilization, pylorus ligation, and aspirin induced gastric ulcers and for histamine or<br />cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers. Ethanol or histamine induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions were quantified by planimetry and a dose-related effectiveness of the aqueous extract of E. utile was determined. Data were compared using Student’s t-test. At 95% confidence interval, any 2-tailed p value &lt;0.05 was considered significant.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Using qualitative evaluation, the extract of E. utile or standard drugs (cimetidine, ranitidine, or nocloprost) did not significantly reduce gastric ulcer incidence and/or ulcer severity. E. utile was ineffective<br />for duodenal ulcers. Using the quantitative methods, histamine, 5 mg kg-1 i.p. in guinea pigs produced 100% incidence of gastric ulcers with a mean ulcer index (UI) of 55.4 ± 8.38. In this model, 100 mg kg -1 cimetidine<br />lowered the incidence to 60% and the UI to 17 ± 9.9 (p&lt;0.0005) while 5 x 10-3g kg-1 E. utile lowered the incidence to 80% and the index to 15.88 ± 11.8 (p&lt;0.01). Similarly 1 ml absolute ethanol given orally in rats produced 100% incidence and UI of 49.2 ± 12.69. In this model, 100 ìg kg-1 nocloprost reduced the incidence to 33% and the mean UI to 10.15 ± 0.55 (p&lt;0.01); E. utile (50 mg kg-1) prevented ethanol induced hemorrhagic gastric mucosal damage (p&lt;0.005).<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: E. utile protected the gastric mucosa against acute noxious assault.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Peptic ulcer, anti-ulcer, E. utile</p> TA John H Adewoye AO Onabanjo Copyright (c) 2013-05-16 2013-05-16 5 1 13 21 10.4314/ijhr.v5i1. Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated Pawpaw (<i>Carica papaya</i> L) on Sale in Nigerian Markets <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of fungi associated with marketed pawpaw in South Southern Nigeria and the public health significance.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Pawpaw fruits with lesions or rots were obtained from three different markets in three different states in South Southern Nigeria. Five genera of moulds (Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Curvularia and Trichoderma) were isolated and used for inoculation of sound pawpaw samples at two wound depths of 5 and 7mm with either single or paired cultures. The resultant isolates were evaluated for mycotoxin production using thin layer chromatography and the mycotoxigenic potential of isolates was assessed by animal feeding trial using albino rats of the wistar strain fed orally with different concentrations of the mycotoxin extracts<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Mycotoxins were detected from pawpaw samples inoculated with Rhizopus, Aspergillus and Fusarium, before and after autoclaving for 15 min at 121 oC. Wistar rats fed on mycotoxin extracts developed symptoms of neurotoxicity characterized by ascending paralysis, convulsion and respiratory arrest.<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Most of the fungal isolates in this study showed a great potential for mycotoxin production with associated neurotoxicity which is of concern in public health.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Fungi, Pawpaw, Mycotoxins, Neurotoxicity, Public health</p> OO Oyeyipo CA Iwuji O Owhoeli Copyright (c) 2013-05-16 2013-05-16 5 1 23 27 10.4314/ijhr.v5i1. The Prevalence of Bacteriospermia in Patients with Clinically Diagnosed HIV/AIDS in Port Harcourt <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the prevalence of bacteriospermia in male patients with clinically proven HIV/AIDS in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: Using standard methods, sperm samples were collected by masturbation after 3 days of abstinence from 120 male patients with clinically diagnosed HIV/AIDS aged 18-57 with a mean age of 39.5; this included 65 single and 55 married men and analyzed for sperm quality and bacteriological profile.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 120 patients tested, 90 (75%) had bacteriospermia with at least one pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus, 30%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 13%, Escherichia coli, 20%, Proteus mirabilis, 10%, Proteus<br />vulgaris, 10%, Klebsiella spp., 10% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7%). The prevalence of bacteriospermia was higher in singles 60 (50%) compared to married 30 (25%) and significantly (P=0.05) higher in subjects 28-37 and 38-47 years age group (both 30%) followed by the 18-27 years age group (15%).<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A relatively high rate of prevalence of bacteriospermia has been identified among HIV/AIDS patients studied. This is dependent of age and marital status of the patients.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Sperm quality, Infertility, Bacteria profile, Viral infection, Immunity, Prevention, Public health.</p> OO Oyeyipo O Owhoeli CA Iwuji Copyright (c) 2013-05-16 2013-05-16 5 1 29 33 10.4314/ijhr.v5i1. Evaluation of Post-Operative Visual Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Ghana <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate post-operative visual outcomes after cataract surgeries performed at 2 tertiary referral hospitals in Ghana<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective consecutive case review of hospital –elective-cataract surgeries of all ages performed at two tertiary referral centers in Southern Ghana during a 3-year-period was carried out. Data was compiled on demographic characteristics, pre- and postoperative visual acuities and surgical complications. The preoperative and postoperative visual status was classified using the World Health Organization (WHO) category of Visual Impairment and Blindness. The standard parameters of assessing outcome of cataract surgery and the WHO criteria for grading the outcome of cataract surgery were used.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 1288 unilateral cataract extractions were performed within the 3-year-period of this review. Mean age of the patients at operation was 64.47 ± 16.7years. Small incision cataract surgery (SICS) with intraocular lens implant (83.8%) was the major surgical technique. One thousand two hundred and eighty four eyes (99.7%) were blind (VA &lt;3/60) before surgery of which fewer than 9.5% remained blind postoperatively. The proportion of post operative eyes with good outcome (6/6-6/18) was 22.0% within 48 hours of surgery and 41.2% at 4-6 weeks follow up. Outcome was poor (&lt;6/60) in 29.2% within 48 hours of surgery and 9.5% at 4-6 weeks follow up. Nearly half of the operative eyes had borderline outcome (6/24-6/60) within 48 hours of surgery and at follow up. ECCE +IOL operating technique achieved the best results, resulting in 54.6% of the operated eyes achieving good outcome. Only 2.8% of the operated eyes had surgical complications at follow up, of which posterior capsular opacities (50%) and vitreous loss (13.3%) were the major causes. A total of 1164 (90.4%) of the operated eyes did not have optical correction after surgery.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Over 41.2% of post-operative eyes patients in this study had very good visual outcome following cataract surgery in the study population. Nevertheless, greater attention to post-operative care and uncorrected refractive error is needed.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cataract surgery, cataract surgical outcome, visual outcome.</p> AA Ilechie BS Boadi-Kusi OV Ndudiri EA Ofori Copyright (c) 2013-05-16 2013-05-16 5 1 35 42 10.4314/ijhr.v5i1.