Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2022-04-23T10:19:09+00:00 Prof. Dennis N. Ocholla Open Journal Systems <p>The journal’s objectives are to publish papers of broad interest in the humanities and social sciences. The journal strives to enable a sound balance between theory and practice and will publish papers of research, conceptual, viewpoint, case study, literature review nature in broad topics in the field such as: Philosophy and Psychology, Religion and Theology, Social Sciences, Language, the Arts, Literature and Rhetoric, Geography and History, Management, Communication, Media and Information Sciences. <br><br>The Journal has its own website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Dynamics at the frontier between the demands of democracy and sociocultural imperatives: Human rights and school discipline in secondary schools in Malawi 2022-04-23T06:40:27+00:00 Peter Ngwinjo Namphande <p>Human rights gained prominence in sub-Saharan Africa in the wave of democratisation following the collapse of communism. After decades of repressive systems of government, the fledgling democracies took several measures to safeguard democracy, one of which was the introduction of human rights education and education for democratic citizenship in their education systems. This paper reports on a study in Malawi where the advent of democracy led to the introduction of a discipline policy in secondary schools that appeared controversial because it took away teachers’ prerogative and unrestricted powers to discipline accused students. Since the policy came as a directive, without proper consultation of stakeholders, it caused an uproar on the secondary education&nbsp; andscape. The aim of this study was to explore and compare dynamics and forms of resistance that were found in two schools following their implementation of&nbsp; he discipline policy. Using the qualitative design and the comparative case study approach, the study generated data from two purposively sampled secondary&nbsp; chools of different types. The findings of the study showed that although the schools apparently followed the guidelines of the policy, the handling of cases was&nbsp; highly contextual, allowing each school to evade the elements of the policy that appeared controversial. The findings bring to the fore covert and subtle forms of resistance to policy implementation through the dynamics involved in the procedures for handling disciplinary cases. The article argues for a negotiated&nbsp; approach when there is a clash between sociocultural beliefs and policy changes dictated by ‘universal’ demands, otherwise policy implementation will be fraught with internal political undercurrents.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Can downsizing correlate with community development? A complex adaptive systems approach 2022-04-23T09:53:44+00:00 Rosemary Boateng Coffie Alimatu Sardiya Florence Ellis Eric Akaadom <p>Studies on retrenchment effects have mostly observed the organisation, the affected, and the survivors, overlooking that of the community. This study explores the effects of involuntary employee retrenchment on community development within the mining sector. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered for the study by adopting a mixed-method approach using snowball and purposive sampling techniques. To establish the effects of retrenchment on the community, an exploratory factor analysis and content analysis were used, drawing on the philosophies of the complex adaptive systems theory. The findings reveal that retrenched employees suffer a reduction in income and spending. Again, the local community where most affected workers reside suffers major developmental setbacks, mainly due to the non-payment of property and other taxes that are used to develop the community. The study confirms the interconnectedness of organisations and environments: they exist as a confirmation of the complex adaptive systems theory. Again, the revelation of the effects of retrenchment which transfers from the organisation to the affected and the community, contributes to retrenchment studies. The study recommends that management negotiates to establish consensus with stakeholders to follow provisions in the Labour Act relative to retrenchment. Again, retrenched staff should learn other employable skills to aid their re-employment. Although engaging employees who have been retrenched was quite difficult due to their scattered nature, this was managed through the use of snowball sampling. A significant implication for organisations and stakeholders in this study is the fact that retrenchment does not guarantee improved performance and can be costly.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Socio-cultural status of ‘barracks women’ in Nigeria, 1905-1985: A historical perspective 2022-04-23T06:51:18+00:00 Justus Adim Nzemeka <p>This article focuses on the socio-cultural status of barracks women in Nigeria. The study is important, contrary to the thinking that army wives have no history worth studying because of culture, environment, and sex stereotypes. The paper argues that since the incorporation of women into the barracks, their roles have been complementary in both empire-building and nation-building. Remarkably, their influence contributed to the construction of social relations and&nbsp; interdependence between the colonisers and the colonised. With the departure of European wives from the colony, indigenous officers’ wives transformed their roles from the private to the public spheres to meet the challenges of nation-building and social change. In this piece, we draw on oral sources, military magazines and literature, qualitative data and Internet sources to highlight the socio-cultural status of women and their involvement in colonial and post-colonial societies. This paper reveals that rank is a factor in women’s involvement in gender and service politics. It concludes that barracks women can improve their status in the social and economic spheres through government empowerment and social investment programmes. This study is limited to barracks women in Nigeria. It will help society to know that barracks women have a history worth studying.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Cast me not as a succubus or a jezebel: Nollywood actresses and the struggle against women stereotyping 2022-04-23T09:49:17+00:00 Floribert Patrick C. Endong <p>The stereotyping and sexual objectification of womanhood in Nollywood films have partly been attributed to Nigerian actresses. According to a number of critics and scholars, female actors’ passivity and complicity are to blame for the continuous negative portrayals of women in films. This popular belief follows from the arguable myth that female actors most often accept demeaning roles in films; meanwhile, it is axiomatic that if they reject such roles, androcentric/sexist screen writers will be compelled to develop better female characters for their films. If the above logic seems pertinent, it tends to hastily generalise on Nollywood actresses’ attitude towards the objectification of womanhood. The logic also fails to recognise the grossly understudied efforts made by many Nigerian actresses against women stereotyping in the Nigerian film industry. This paper focuses on these understudied efforts with a view of filling a knowledge gap. Specifically, the paper hinges on secondary sources and critical observations to explore some of the ways in which Nollywood actresses have struggled – and continue to struggle – against women’s stereotyping in Nollywood films. In the first place, the paper examines women stereotyping and objectification in Nollywood films; and in the second it explores three ways in which Nigerian actresses resist their stereotyping in the Nigerian film industry. These include the rejection of demeaning roles, feminine feminist cinema and the tendency to request the same demeaning roles for men.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The relationship between smart classroom and learners’ academic performance in public boarding schools of Gicumbi District, Rwanda 2022-04-23T09:49:59+00:00 Mushimiyimana Jean de Dieu Dushimimana Jean de Dieu <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between smart classrooms and learner’s academic performance in public boarding schools in Gicumbi District, Rwanda. The first objective was to assess the relationship between the availability of instructional facilities and learner’s academic performance in Rwandan public boarding schools. The second objective was to explore the relationship between IT-trained staff and learner’s academic performance in Rwandan public boarding schools. The study targeted 12 public boarding schools from Gicumbi District, where 4 public boarding schools were selected. The study population comprised 1334 respondents, while the final sample size was 308, people who had been selected using Yamane sample size determination. Reliability was ensured through a pilot study and by using Cronbach’s Alpha to measure co-efficient of internal consistency, which yielded good results for approving the study, of 85%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21. Findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between smart classrooms and learner’s academic performance in Rwandan public boarding schools. All the involved variables had a significant relationship with dependent variables which were the availability of instructional facilities (r=.923 and p-value=0.000), IT-trained staff (r=.949 and p-value=0.000). Researchers recommended that teachers need regular Continuous Professional Development to help them update knowledge on the use of smart classrooms. Parents should be mobilised on how to create a technological atmosphere at home for their children because any academic achievement of students depends on how parents have helped them at home. It would be better if parents were able to afford electronic devices to expose their children to technology. Government should make frequent schools supervision on the use of smart classrooms and make sure that sector education officers and head teachers do not keep those machines in hte store instead of letting learners use them. The implication is that if smart classrooms are increased and monitored in Rwanda, academic achievement will improve in boarding schools.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Democratic deficits and underdevelopment in Mozambique 2022-04-23T07:03:49+00:00 Victor Jatula Stella Conshello <p>Mozambique has the trappings of a progressive African state: abundant gas and coal resources, expanding foreign direct investment, aid from international donors, a decade of political stability, and social welfare for her most vulnerable. However, Mozambique ranks among the least developed nations on the African continent (World Bank 2018; UNHDI 2018). This study investigated why resource-rich, democratic Mozambique is underdeveloped, aid-dependent and poor. Using survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, findings indicate three critical factors: Mozambique’s version of democracy, particularly the dominance of Frelimo; "Dead Aid" and state inefficiency, evidenced by weak forward and backward linkages within the economy, and escalating insecurity in Cabo Delgado. These red flags indicate deficits in Mozambique’s democratic process and shortfalls in her political economy. Affluence and democracy have become sundered during this recent history; this paper seeks causes. One main challenge to the existing deficit could be provided by the introduction of a Freedom of Information Act to strengthen radical media and civil society groups and open up Mozambique’s politics to ethical, progressive and democratic scrutiny. Urgency is required to alter the current regressive path Mozambique treads. The study’s limitation is its moderate sample size.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The vulnerability of day labourers in South Africa and the role of community development in an integrated approach to achieving sustainable livelihoods 2022-04-23T07:06:05+00:00 Mzukisi Xweso <p>Poverty and unemployment are significant barriers to growth in South Africa and are reflected in low levels of income and high levels of unemployment and human deprivation. Rising unemployment is forcing the majority of deprived people to venture into a variety of survival activities such as day labouring in the informal sector of the South African economy, to eke out a meagre livelihood. As the vulnerability of day labourers in South Africa is socially and economically unjust, the main thrust of this article concerns the role of community development in an integrated approach to achieving sustainable livelihoods for South African day labourers. This article takes the form of a review of relevant available literature to provide a coherent account of the vulnerable circumstances of day labourers in South Africa. The inevitable conclusion that can be drawn from the review is that the hardships to which day labourers and their families are subjected, as a consequence of the nature of their work and the poor remuneration that it generates, when they are able to secure a day’s work, effectively condemn them to being obliged to cope in circumstances that could best be described as untenable.&nbsp;</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Synopsis on cyberethics behaviour: A literature review 2022-04-23T09:50:30+00:00 Nurudeen. A. Aderibigbe <p>This paper provides an overview of the empirical literature on cyberethics issues within an academic environment, specifically young adults’ behaviours in using cyber technology. While digital media is a part of the institutional and societal drive for informational inclusion and knowledge development, the ethical practices and behaviours among the users of cyber technology have raised questions on users’ awareness and understanding of the implications of ethical violations in cyberspace. Using technology might provide significant theoretical paradigms in understanding how digital media adoption and diffusion, driven by information technology, can vary globally. The study reviews the literature on the emergence of cyber technology ethics, individual characteristics, awareness level, challenges to undergraduates’ cyberethics behaviour, and the central role policy plays in strengthening or promoting ethical conduct in cyberspace. This paper provides current information for awareness of CE, teaching and research on information ethics and related domains.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Housework and the correction of gender inequity 2022-04-23T09:38:19+00:00 Catherine Addison <p>No abstract.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The paradoxes of the remote – A valediction 2022-04-23T09:39:48+00:00 Myrtle Hooper <p>No abstract.</p> 2022-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0