Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p>The journal’s objectives are to publish papers of broad interest in the humanities and social sciences. The journal strives to enable a sound balance between theory and practice and will publish papers of research, conceptual, viewpoint, case study, literature review nature in broad topics in the field such as: Philosophy and Psychology, Religion and Theology, Social Sciences, Language, the Arts, Literature and Rhetoric, Geography and History, Management, Communication, Media and Information Sciences. <br><br>The Journal has its own website here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Forum Press en-US Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2077-2815 Copyright belongs to the journal and the Faculty of Arts, University of Zululand, S. Africa Francophobia as an expression of Pan-Africanism in Francophone Africa: An exploration of the Cameroonian political and media discourse <p>There has over the decades been a recrudescence of francophobia in many francophone African countries. This has attracted the attention of scholars across the world and has fuelled a discourse which has myopically constructed francophone Africans’ francophobic sentiments either as a purely xenophobic movement or a nationalist feeling. Meanwhile, for many members of the African diasporas and&nbsp; intelligentsia, francophobia is essentially an expression of their panAfrican convictions. In effect, for many francophone pan-African&nbsp; political activists, the act of fighting and mitigating neocolonialism in their countries is inextricably tantamount to exhibiting francophobic sentiments. Such an act is also tantamount to deploying various forms of animosity against France. This is so perhaps because France is arguably perceived as the most dominant neocolonial force in their countries. In this paper, this popular trend is illustrated with close respect to the Cameroonian experience. Using secondary sources and critical observations, the paper specifically looks at how various manifestations of French neocolonialism have given birth to waves of anti-French sentiments among the intelligentsia and in the media; and how this anti-French feeling is mostly expressed in the name of Pan-Africanism. The paper thus examines how Pan-Africanism has, to both the Cameroonian intelligentsia and the media, meant adopting a virulent anti-French discourse or rhetoric. In line with this central objective, the paper answers three principal research questions: what body of evidence proves that there is French neocolonialism in Cameroon? How has French neocolonialism engendered a virulent pan-African discourse that is basically anti-French? And how has this panAfrican francophobic discourse been observed or manifested among the Cameroonian intelligentsia and in the country’s private media?</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Anti-French sentiment, neocolonialism, Pan-Africanism, nationalist media, domination, Françafrique. Cameroon </p> Floribert Patrick C. Endong Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 115 128 Exploring effective strategies to revamp the student enrolments in private tertiary institutions: A case of Rwanda <p>Different reports by the Ministry of Education in Rwanda have confirmed a decrease in student enrolments in Rwandan private universities since 2014, such that there is a need for effective strategies to address this issue. This study was undertaken to explore effective strategies to revamp student enrolments in six selected private tertiary institutions in Rwanda. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and used a sample of 382 participants out of 13914 subjects. The study employed a structured questionnaire for data collection. The data was<br>analysed by means of percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the effective institution-based strategies to improve student enrolments in private universities in Rwanda are notably: motivate new applicants by helping the alumni to get jobs, reduce the costs and bring flexibility in fee payment, offer more flexible and marketable programs, improve quality in teaching and provide adequate instructional facilities. It was also found that the effective Government-based strategies are notably: promote graduate employability in Rwanda, provide study loan to private university students, promote more technical programmes than general ones, provide financial support to private universities by the Rwandan government to build their capacity. The study recommended that there should be partnership between the managers of private tertiary institutions and the government of Rwanda in putting in place the<br>suggested effective strategies to revamp the student enrolments of the institutions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: effective strategies, private tertiary institutions, revamp, student enrolments, Rwanda </p> Cyprien Sikubwabo André Muhirwa Muhirwa Philothère Ntawiha Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 129 145 Generic structure potential analysis of Christian street evangelism in Southwestern Nigeria <p>Christian street evangelism is one of the Bible-based doctrinal practices found among Nigerian Christians, especially in Southwestern Nigeria. Studies have examined language use in Christian activities, including sermons in church services, at funerals and in marriage ceremonies. However, no scholarly attention has been paid to a linguistic description of language use in Christian street evangelism,<br>which, although sit hares some features with other contexts of Christian activities, manifests some elements that characteristically define it within the series of Christian evangelistic activities. This study, therefore, is a generic structural potential analysis of Christian street&nbsp; evangelism in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were gathered using ethnographic techniques. Data comprised fifteen observed street&nbsp; evangelism activities randomly sampled in different cities in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were subjected to discourse analysis within the purview of Halliday and Hassan’s (1985) Generic Structure Potential (GSP) theory. Findings reveal Christian street evangelism features five obligatory elements: songs, greetings, sermon, prayer and finis; and three optional elements: declaration of purpose, call for confession,<br>and welcome to the fold. The GSP of Christian street evangelism in Southwestern Nigeria can be catalogued as .</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Christian street evangelism, Southwestern Nigeria, Generic Structure Potential</p> Michael Temitope Ajayi Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 146 158 The influence of ancestral spirits on sexual identity amongst Traditional Healers (<i>iZangoma</i>) in South Africa: A discourse analysis <p>Over the years South African Traditional Healers have been discriminated against, with claims that they are ‘witch-doctors’. Non-heterosexual Africans2 are also often faced with the horror of violent attacks stemming from the belief that homosexuality is ‘un-African’. The harsh experiences of homosexual, bisexual and transgender traditional healers are, therefore, unimaginable. This study explored the spiritual (ancestral) influence on the sexual identity of African Traditional Healers, particularly iZangoma. The study revealed that for some iZangoma engaging in same-sex relationships is never a choice but ‘imposed’ or forced by the dominant ancestral guide, depending on which sex the ancestor was attracted to when they were still alive. This paper challenges the idea that homosexuality has never existed in Africa, and is therefore an import from the West. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: this study may potentially inform contemporary African debates around homosexuality and challenge how it is perceived amongst groups that are regarded as playing significant roles of healing and leadership in African communities. Since homosexuality amongst izangoma is not a chosen identity but forced by ancestral guides, this calls for an end to discrimination against ancestral possession, homosexuality in Africa, and the double&nbsp; stigmatisation against izangoma who are attracted to the same sex.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: sexual identity, homosexual, bisexual, transgender, LGBTQI+, African Traditional Healer, iZangoma, ancestors, ancestral guide</p> Khanyisile Rosemary Mnyadi Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 159 177 Developing football language in Yorùbá <p>Football is a global sport; almost all cultures have catalogues of terms devised to designate its concepts. This study, which is a part of an on-going project by this researcher to develop “A metalanguage for football terms in Yorùbá” (one of the three major languages in Nigeria), seeks to describe strategies for designating football concepts in Yorùbá. Source language data were generated mainly from Dictionary – Inside UEFA – and translated using Newmark (1981) semantic and communicative translation strategies. The essence of the translation is to enable cognition of the terms in the target language. Existing Yorùbá terms for football concepts were generated from audio recordings of radio sports news presentations and dicourses and from football fans at football viewing centres with<br>the aid of questionnaires. The researcher also relied on informants who are competent speakers of Yorùbá and are experts in football matters. These experts were helpful in making choices from the existing designations, and in offering alternative designations where existing terms are deemed inappropriate. The strategies employed for labeling football terms in Yorùbá include composition,&nbsp; idiomatisation, explication, loan translation, borrowing, use of existing equivalents, coinage, derivation, semantic extension, modulation, decentialisation and interlinguistic or hybrid formation. For the purpose of clinical cognition, these terms were categorised into native language creation, borrowing and interlinguistic based on linguistic sources of term creation. It is hoped that the study will significantly<br>improve effective and efficient use of a football vocabulary in the study of the language.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Football, strategies for designating football concepts, source language, target language, Yorùbá, metalanguage, strategies.</p> Olusanya Ezekiel1 Komolafe Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 178 193 Transparency in local government finance and service delivery: The case of Mwanza City and Moshi District Councils in Tanzania <p>Transparency is an essential tool of local governance which enables the local citizens to hold local institutions accountable for their&nbsp; performance, to foster trust in government, minimize corruption and improve local service delivery. Accountability and transparency have been on the top of agendas in all the local government reforms in Tanzania. For transparency to work properly, it needs effective structures of implementation. Within the local government system in Tanzania, the structures of transparency are present but appear to be not working as they should do. This paper seeks to assess the extent to which the problems of transparency have persisted under the new phase of local government reforms and how they are likely to impact on local service delivery in Tanzania. The purpose of this study&nbsp; was, therefore, to examine the extent to which fiscal transparency in local governments in Tanzania is practised and how this has played a greater role in service delivery. The study used a case study of purposively selected local councils in Tanzania to examine the dynamics of fiscal transparency and service delivery. The findings show that there is little flow of information from higher levels of local governments to the lower levels in relation to resources available and results achieved. The information received from the councils is sometimes opaque or fuzzy in the sense that it does not reveal all about what their leaders do or what important decisions have been made about their councils. The study concludes that the importance of accountability and transparency attached to service delivery in any country is essential for good practice in local governance. Hence, instruments for accountability and transparency at the local levels must be enhanced to enable public institutions and public officials to be responsive to the citizens.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Decentralization, transparency, local finance, accountability, Tanzania </p> Ambrose T. Kessy Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 194 211 Designing Per-Poor system of innovation proverbs <p>The purpose of the study was to explore how to create a Per-Poor innovation (PPI) approach in a way that contributes knowledge. A lot of&nbsp; indigenous system research exists, but the percentage transformed into approaches, products and services is low. The study will create a low income level innovation artifact by integrating indigenous knowledge (IK) and global knowledge (GK) for Per-Poor innovators. Analogy design science research method was used to create a system of innovation proverbs. Analogy between indigenous Harambee and global sysems: Open source software, Software patterns and Kaizen was used to discover innovation rules and principles applicable to PPI. The research findings are synthesising African philosophies and provide a paradigm for integrating IK and GK. Synthesising proverbs and Theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) principles aided in the discovery of possible ways beeping innovation was created. The originality of this research is being first to create an indigenous PPI.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: indigenous knowledge, Per-Poor innovation, proverbs, global knowledge, systems&nbsp; </p> Wangai Njoroge Mambo Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 212 229 Lawyers’ antics and nonverbal impoliteness in Nigerian court documents: An example of Mosojo versus Oyetayo <p>Unlike the inquisitorial court system, the adversarial court requires that counsels willfully resort to face-aggravating impolite non/verbal acts through the instrumentation of relevant court papers as well as the use of professional privileges at the cross-examination phase to the detriment of the opposition, thereby elevating the quest for victory above fact-finding and the dispensation of justice. The study evaluates counsels’ impolite nonverbal communicative behaviour and professional antics which are complementary to verbal impoliteness. Anchored on Watts’ (2003) theory of relational works and Culpeper’s (1996) impoliteness super-strategies, the study drew fifteen (15) purposively selected examples, with preponderance of underlying nonverbal faceaggravating behaviour by professional&nbsp; courtroom participants, from archived pretrial documents and transcripts of proceedings in Mosojo versus Oyetayo (2012). Against the existence of inquisitorial and fact-finding alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms, the disputants chose the adversarial Western-like court system, with a penchant for impolite non/verbal behaviour, for the resolution of the Obasinkin chieftaincy dispute in a Nigerian community. Findings revealed that counsels’ antics and nonverbal impolite behaviour are not only embedded in some legal documents, but also manifested in the form of time-wasting, willful absence from court and embedded presupposing boobytrap arguments that were meant to frustrate the opposition and influence the course of justice. Litigants are advised to explore the ADR alternative while judges should regulate the courtroom use of language to prevent the miscarriage of justice.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Lawyers antics, court documents, Nigeria, Mosojo vs Oyetayo, face-aggravation, impoliteness, nonverbal acts </p> Abayomi O. Ayansola Bibian Ugoala Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 230 242 Discursive ideologies in campaign speeches of Cyril Ramaphosa and Julius Malema in the 2019 South African presidential election <p>This work analyses the discursive ideologies embedded in campaign speeches of Cyril Ramaphosa of the African National Congress (ANC) and Julius Malema of the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) in the period before May 8, 2019, the South African general elections. The study is an attempt to uncover the hidden ideologies the candidates subtly employ to sway voters in their favour. The study employed Critical Discourse Analysis to analyse the campaign messages. The data for the study comprised the campaign exchanges of the two candidates retrieved from This study shows that the two presidential contenders, through their campaign speeches, employed different ideologies through which they hoped to sway the electorate in their favour. The incumbent, Cyril Ramaphosa, projects the ideology of renewal and the elements of ‘us’ versus ‘them’ in his campaign speeches. Julius Malema, on the other hand, being a young leader, sells the ideologies of economic liberation, ‘us’ versus ‘them’ and ‘young’ versus ‘old’, depicting that only the youth can lead South Africa to the promised land. The study submits that political discourse is laden with specific ideologies which are intended to convince the voters to vote for them. It is therefore important that the public be well informed so that they can rationally uncover and identify these&nbsp; ideologies and either accept or reject them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: discursive, ideology, campaign, South African presidential elections</p> Ibitayo O. Oso ivie R. Oviawe Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 243 257 Curmudgeon article including reports of two recent African Psychology studies on Covid-19 <p>COVID-19 offers new opportunities for confrontation and transcendence of the givens of life, including illness, suffering and death. These givens also bring humanity’s greatest gifts, such as joy and compassion. This article reports on two recent African psychology studies on COVID-19. The first study on local rural Zulu persons’ COVID-19 coping experiences provides a&nbsp; contemporary context for the second study on universalising and indigenising the meaning and practice of love after COVID-19. Five main points are made. First, African psychology is original psychology. Second, it refers to psychology in, of, for, and from Africa, on, by and for Africans. Third, it has much to offer psychology in other continents. Fourth, the Greek philosophy of love has considerable African origins. Fifth, the concept of Ubuntu both relates to and extends the notion of agape or unconditional love, through its emphasis on human relationships, which require extra compassionate care during and after COVID-19. </p> Stephen D. Edwards Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 258 262 Profit vs public health: the crisis of liberal democracy and universal healthcare in Africa <p>No Abstract.</p> Christopher Isike Copyright (c) 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 12 2 263 267