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International Journal of Modern Anthropology

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Pacific Islanders and Amerindian relatedness according to HLA autosomal genes

A Arnaiz-Villena, C Areces, M Enríquez-de-Salamanca, S Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, J Marco, E Muñiz, M Fernández-Honrado, MM Villa, D Rey

Abstract


Americas peopling has recently been explained based only on genetic data. While different First America inhabitants’ ethnic groups, Amerindians, Na-Dene speakers, Aleuts and Eskimo there exist, there is no either genetic, cultural or anthropological homogeneity within these groups. In the present work, we have particularly addressed the relatedness of First America Inhabitants with Pacific Islanders by using autosomal genetic markers: the HLA alleles. HLA is the most polymorphic human genetic system accounting for 9,438 alleles; this is most useful for comparing populations relatedness. Ethnic groups of Pacific Islanders and First America Inhabitants have been used. A genealogic study and also a frequency comparison study by using HLA alleles and haplotypes have been carried out. Our conclusions are: 1- Aleuts seem to be a genetic and linguistic separate group which may be related to northern European Lapps, both of them originated in southern Siberia Baikal Lake area. 2- First America Inhabitants, including all analyzed Amerindians, Na-Dene speakers and Eskimo have had genetic flow with Pacific Islanders: the latter share autosomal HLA alleles and haplotypes with First America Inhabitants. This could have been bidirectional. 3- Particularly, Easter Islanders show a probable cultural and genetic exchange with Titikaka Lake Aymaras. This civilisation also shares significant traits with European Iberian megalithic builders. 4- Mesoamericans may be grouped together because of they bear more ancient Olmec culture traits and present paper HLA results. 5- Genetics is not able by itself to uncover in space and time Americas peopling and First America Inhabitants relatedness with Pacific Islanders.

Keywords: Alberite Dolmen, Aleuts, America peopling, Amerindians, Australia, Easter Island, HLA, Lapps, Melanesia, Micronesia, Pacific, Polynesia, Tiwanaku




http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijma.v1i7.2
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