International Journal of Modern Anthropology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma <p>Some recent rigorous studies in anthropological research begin to provide new conclusions against some classic questionable considerations and /or show increasing tendency to do some syntheses of multidisciplinary data. The revelation of these two events marks the birth of a modern anthropology. The principal aim of this journal is to contribute to the development of this modern anthropology.</p> <p>Another website related to this open access journal: <a href="http://www.ata.org.tn/index.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">www.ata.org.tn</a></p> Tunisian Association of Antrhopology (TAA) en-US International Journal of Modern Anthropology 1737-7374 <p>Authors retain the copyrights of their papers, which are licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivative Works 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</strong><strong>.</strong> This License allows readers to disseminate and reuse the article, and so will enable the sharing and reuse of scientific material. It does not however permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission. <br /> (To view a copy of this license visit <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</a>.)</p> Lineal Megalithic and Tartessian Rock Scripts in the Alcalar Dolmens complex (Portimao, Portugal) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/237420 <p>Lineal Megalithic Scripts (LMS) have been found in the Alcalar Dolmen complex (Portimao, Portugal) in a stoneslab which is located close to the reconstructed Dolmen 7. Exact situation of the megalithic Alcalar Stoneslab and scripts placing are shown in this paper. Their preliminar analysis has given also finding of some Iberian-Tartessian signs common to Cumbres Mayores Dolmens (Huelva, Spain), and other signs also found in Sahara Desert (Tim Missaou, Algeria) and Canary Islands rocks. The presence of these LMS admixed with some signs contained in the Iberian-Tartessian signary suggests a transition between LMS and lineal Tartessian signary. A religious funerary transcription has been proposed to these Tartessian signs based on Basque and ancient Iberian-Tartessian language close relatedness. The fact that Tartessian culture is located at Portuguese Algarve and Spanish Andalusia fits with the finding that both in Portugal (Alcalar) and Spain (Cumbres Mayores) Dolmens are found Iberian-Tartessian signs that may be as old as the megaliths (3-4 thousand years BC). It is also proposed that this development and concentration of megaliths in Algarve (Portugal) and Andalusia (Spain) is related to Tartessos civilization in the area which would follow the South Iberia Pyrite Belt, rich in cooper (Cu), silver (Ag), gold (Au) and iron (Fe), that crosses South Portugal and Spain; Tartessos would be somewhat attached to the Iberian Pyrite Belt source of richness. Leisners archaeologists also observed and photographed “Iberian” signs in the San Bartolomé Dolmen (Huelva, Spain) in 1951 AD; they described here “Iberian” scripts in a small artifact most likely is a slinger soldier (“hondero”) projectile who could exixt since 3-4000 BC in South Spain.</p> Antonio Arnaiz-Villena Valentin Ruíz-del-Valle Alejandro Sánchez-Orta Fabio Suarez-Trujillo Copyright (c) 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 2 18 896 922 10.4314/ijma.v2i18.1 Approaches to epilepsy treatment among Yoruba traditional healers in southwest Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/237421 <p>Traditional Yoruba medical practitioners are known for taking a holistic and specific approach to treating chronic diseases and illnesses, which may have implications for treatment efficacy and therapeutic outcomes. This study explores the therapeutic measures used by Yoruba traditional healers in managing clients who have epilepsy. Based on a qualitative descriptive case study approach, traditional healers with the requisite experience in treating epilepsy were recruited within two Yoruba communities in southwestern Nigeria. A snowball sampling technique guided the recruitment of 24 traditional healers for face-to-face interviews. All the audio-taped interviews were transcribed and translated into English in a back-to-back approach and analysed thematically with the support of Atlasti 8. It was stated by the traditional healers that divination is the first procedure in the treatment of epilepsy. Divination reveals aetiology, dictates the treatment approach and therapies for each case, and also assists healers in protecting themselves and their significant others from being afflicted with epilepsy. Findings revealed that, as a complex illness, epilepsy could sometimes occur in the life of an individual as an affliction. Thereafter, appeasements, sacrifices, spiritual baths, and concoctions would be introduced on a case-by-case basis. Animals and plant materials also formed parts of the contents used in making potent treatments or therapeutic remedies. Epilepsy is treated among traditional Yoruba healers using different approaches depending on the aetiology of the case and their divination of what works well for an individual. Internal regulations of traditional medicine are required to ensure the legitimacy of treatments and therapies and protect people living with epilepsy from exploitation.</p> Tosin Funmi Ademilokun Ojo Melvin Agunbiade Copyright (c) 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 2 18 924 958 10.4314/ijma.v2i18.2 Medical doctors do not know it, nor can they treat it: Identifying the common neonatal illnesses and preferred healthcare practices in a Yoruba community, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/237423 <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Background: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Prompt and effective healthcare practice is essential to reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality which is at a higher rate among low-income nations including Nigeria, especially in rural settings. Studies have identified some structural factors such as poverty and limited healthcare resources as major factors without giving adequate attention to the related intrinsic factors such as peoples‟ understanding and beliefs among other cultural factors that could encourage or hinder effective healthcare practices for the neonates which is the gap of this study intends to fill. <strong>Methods: </strong>First-hand data were collected during a six-month rapid ethnographic fieldwork at Akinlalu using various qualitative methods of data collection including observations, interviews, and discussion among others. The main focuses were the community's social life and activities and socio-cultural structures such as faith homes and healthcare as well as individuals (grandmothers, grandfathers, birth attendants, medical doctors, and childbearing fathers and mothers) involved in family and children's health in this community. <strong>Results: </strong>Findings reveal an array of neonatal illnesses and interestingly a high level of discordance between the perceived illnesses, causes, and treatment between local people and modern healthcare providers. Widely identified and considered the deadliest neonatal diseases are <em>senukoto, oka, and yiyi </em>(measles). Others mentioned are <em>giri </em>(convulsion), <em>olo-inu, </em>and <em>jedi-jedi</em>. <em>Senukoto </em>is believed to be caused by <em>kokoro </em>(bacteria/germs) and can kill the infected neonate within the first seven days after birth if not adequately treated. <em>Oka</em>, <em>yiiyi, </em>and <em>olo-inu </em>were also considered deadly, usually causing taboos violation while eating sweetening things during pregnancy or breastfeeding is the perceived cause of <em>jedi-jedi</em>. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>the study concludes that rural dwellers often cast doubt on orthodox medical practitioners in response to childhood illnesses and treatment which in most cases have implications for prompt healthcare seeking and non-adherence to the medically prescribed regimen. </span></p> Timothy Olanrewaju Alabi Taofeek Kolawole Aliyu Copyright (c) 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 2 18 961 986 10.4314/ijma.v2i18.3 The beginner’s odyssey: ethics, participant observation and its challenges in native ethnography https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/237424 <p>Classic anthropological fieldwork emphasized working „abroad‟ – that is, doing fieldwork in societies that were culturally and geographically distant from that of the ethnographer. More recent discussions of anthropological fieldwork have drawn attention to significance of working „at home‟ – including paying attention to the forms of social differentiation and marginalization present in the society to which the ethnographer belongs. There are arguments that native anthropologists are better qualified to study issues involving their group than outsiders are. This paper discusses the researcher’s field experience conducting native ethnography among the Nrobo of Southeastern Nigeria. This study adopted ethnographic methods of participant observation – adopting chitchatting and semi-structured interviews. Also, focus group discussion (FGD) was used to cross-check the validity of data from the other instrument. This study found among other things, that conducting native ethnography is a challenge to the ethnographer. The mutual intelligibility does not guarantee quick rapport instead it sets up suspicion. Furthermore, ethical issues in ethnographic research are culturally relative. The Nrobo case stipulates time value and as such reward is expected for every task that takes up their time. Also security threat poses challenges to native ethnography. This study, to the best of my knowledge, is the first attempt to conducting native ethnography among this group. As such it adds to the corpus of ethnographies on the Igbo of Southeastern Nigeria.</p> Ugochukwu T. Ugwu Copyright (c) 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 2 18 988 1007 10.4314/ijma.v2i18.4 Lineal Megalithic Scripts in widespread rocks, stones and a menhir structure in Zalamea la Real (Huelva, Spain) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/237425 <p>Zalamea la Real is close to the biggest Mediterranean mines known in ancient times: Riotinto Mines (Huelva, Spain). Zalamea is within the South Iberia Pyrite Belt, which goes from Alcácer do Sal (Portugal) to Seville (Las Cruces Mines, at Gerena/Aznalcollar villages). It is a territory containing a high density of megaliths and neglected rocks/stones on the surrounding area which are rests of them. Zalamea district could be considered a megalithic region and also a megalithic context altogether, which is linked to mines of metal extractions since 3000 years ago. Probably, the main mines furnaces were at Zalamea. This metal richness could explain Tartessos flourishing, which could extend together with both the high megaliths density and the Southern Iberia Pyrite Belt through South Spain and Portugal. Indeed, common Iberian-Tartessian signary (sometimes admixed with Lineal Megalithic Scripts, a primitive evolutionary writing stage) had been used in this Iberian Pyrite Belt area. In the present paper ,we show our findings on Zalamea la Real engraved rocks/stones and menhirs with Lineal Megalithic Scripts and Tartessian signs, and put them in a context of other similar findings in a big European/African area (South Iberia, Canary Islands and South Algeria, Sahara Desert).</p> Antonio Arnaiz-Villena Félix Lancha-Gómez Valentín Ruíz-del-Valle Adriano Gómez-Ruiz Alejandro Sánchez-Orta Fabio Suárez-Trujillo Copyright (c) 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 2 18 1009 1029 10.4314/ijma.v2i18.5 A historical survey of Karofi abandoned settlement, Dutsen-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/237426 <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">This paper is an archaeological survey of Karofi abandoned settlement, which is located in the north-central area of Katsina State of Nigeria conducted from the 5</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt;">th </span><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">of January to 30</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt;">th </span><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">of March, 2018. Despite Karofi’s large amount of archaeological resources as the survey shows, the area receives little or no attention from researchers. Through ethnographic survey, an effort is made to examine fundamental features of the site with particular reference to the history of the early inhabitants of the area through the collection and analysis of both tangible and intangible remains using an archaeological survey of site. Among the finds identified in this survey are: house and granary foundations, collapsed defensive walls, grinding stones, dye pits, potsherds, remnants of iron slags, cave and rock shelters, among others. The paper suggests that when closely studied, Karofi abandoned settlement will yield great archaeological results. </span></p> Zainab Kabir Nadir Abdulhadi Nasidi Copyright (c) 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 2 18 1031 1043 10.4314/ijma.v2i18.6