International Journal of Modern Anthropology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma <p>Some recent rigorous studies in anthropological research begin to provide new conclusions against some classic questionable considerations and /or show increasing tendency to do some syntheses of multidisciplinary data. The revelation of these two events marks the birth of a modern anthropology. The principal aim of this journal is to contribute to the development of this modern anthropology. </p> <p>Another website related to this open access journal: <a href="http://www.ata.org.tn/index.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">www.ata.org.tn</a></p> Tunisian Association of Antrhopology (TAA) en-US International Journal of Modern Anthropology 1737-7374 <p>Authors retain the copyrights of their papers, which are licensed under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivative Works 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</strong><strong>.</strong> This License allows readers to disseminate and reuse the article, and so will enable the sharing and reuse of scientific material. It does not however permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission. <br /> (To view a copy of this license visit <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</a>.)</p> Megaliths in Tropical Africa: Social Dynamics and Mortuary Practices in Ancient Senegambia (ca. 1350 BCE – 1500 CE) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/207726 <p>When analyzed systematically, Tropical Africa megalithism appears to have emerged in contexts of friction between different lifeways, agriculturalists versus foragers, pastoralists versus hunter-gatherers-fishermen, or agriculturalists versus fishing folks. The monuments built were clearly part of actual territorial strategies. Research conducted by the Sine Ngayene Archaeological Project (2002-2012)&nbsp; frontally addressed the “Why” of the emergence of megalithism in that part of the world, and probes the reasons for the performance of the elaborate burial practices preserved in the archaeological record. This paper emphasizes the diversity and complexity of burial protocols invented by Senegambian “megalith-builders” communities from 1450 BCE to 1500 CE. Senegambian megalithism is shown to have proceeded from territorial marking imperatives, shaping a multi-layered cultural landscape through the implemented mortuary programs anchored on the construction of Ancestorhood.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Megaliths; Senegambia; Cultural landscape; Mortuary program; Burial practice; Monolith-circle; Sine-Ngayene; </p> Augustin F.C. Holl Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 2 15 363 412 10.4314/ijma.v2i15.1 Selected approaches for conflict resolution in marriage disputes in Zimbabwe https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/207729 <p>Realising an increase in marriages, an increase in marriage violence and a subsequent rise in marriage homicide, the study explored the possibility of taking divorce as a preferred option towards ending marriage violence and subsequent homicide. The triangulated study adopted a descriptive survey design which collected data through questionnaires that were distributed to 160 purposively&nbsp; sampled participants. The study followed an anti-positivist approach which relies on depth rather than width of data. Data were analysed and interpreted using NVIVO software and dyadic analysis, which provided for the analysis of descriptive and statistical data. It was the study’s finding that marriage conflicts and homicide are rampant in Zimbabwe and the available resolution systems have lost relevance and effectiveness. The study, noted that while marriages are good for the development of any society, if there are irreparable differences between couples, there is need to separate or divorce under what the study calls ‘just divorce’. The study concludes that ’just divorce’ is basically meant to save lives while allowing divorcees to reconnect after they would have really made up their minds and addressed emotions. It takes national authorities to appreciate the essence of ‘just divorce’ for them to embrace it as a policy.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Marriage violence; Divorce; Marriage homicide; Family conflicts; Conflict resolution; Just Divorce </p> Obediah Dodo Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 2 15 414 438 10.4314/ijma.v2i15.2 Iberian inscriptions in Sahara Desert rocks (Ti-m Missaou, Ahaggar Mts. area, Algeria): first evidence of incise Iberian rock scripts in continental North Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/207735 <p>In the present paper, we show Iberian or Iberian-Guanche scripts found in the Middle of Sahara Desert, Ti-m Missaou (Tim Missao, Tim Missaw), 270 km SouthWest of Tamanrasset on Ahaggar or Hoggar Mountains (Mts.) area (Algeria). More Iberian scripts may be earthed beneath Sahara Desert sands or have been neglected by observers. We also put forward that Iberian semi-syllabary may have its origin in the Neolithic Saharo-Canarian Circle, the same as other Mediterranean, Atlantic and European lineal scripts (apart from Berber/Tuareg) like Etruscan, Runes, Old Italian languages, Minoan Lineal A, Sitovo and Gradeshnitsa (Bulgaria) writings (6,000 years<br>BC) and others. In fact, Strabo wrote that Iberians had written language before since 6,000 BC. On the other hand, Sahara Desert was green and populated since before 5,000 years BC and we had proposed that most of Mediterranean culture, languages and writing, had a Saharan origin. Ti-m Missaou Sahara Iberian inscriptions, together with our previous and others researches on Canary Islands, further support this proposal, i.e.: rock scripts, Gimbutas-like Paleolithic figurines and unusual artifacts, like a lunisolar Egyptian-like calendar (“Cheeseboard/Quesera” at Lanzarote) carved in a Megalithic stone, do no support that Phoenicians and Romans carried Canarian ancient Guanche culture. Finally, a continuous lineal writing systems developing seems to have occurred during Paleolithic and Neolithic Epochs, which also harbor the related incise Lineal Megalithic Scripts that could have given rise to Iberian development and other lineal African, European and Mediterranean lineal language scripts. Our present new data is interpreted in the context of the Sahara people migration which occurred when hyperarid conditions started establishing about 6,000 years BC.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Iberian, Iberian-Guanche, Scripts, Canary Islands, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Prehistory, Saharo-Canarian Circle, Genetics, Megaliths, Iberia, Sahara, Atlantic, Mediterranean, Lineal Scripts, Neolithic, Tamanrasset, Hoggar, Ahaggar, Usko-Mediterranean,<br>Etruscan, Tuareg, Berber, Lineal A. </p> Antonio Arnaiz-Villena Valentín Ruiz-del-Valle Adrián López-Nares Fabio Suárez-Trujillo Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 2 15 440 467 10.4314/ijma.v2i15.3 Misinformation about COVID-19 among internet users in Nigeria: Tools to effective public awareness, prevention and control https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/207737 <p>Since the World Health Organization announced in early 2020 that the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by an infodemic of misinformation, we are left with the question of public perspective-driven compliance to safety measures. This preliminary study evaluated some claims about COVID-19 including vaccine conspiracy theories among Nigerians with factors influencing it. An online structured questionnaire was designed to collect one-time data from voluntary participants. Demographically, major respondents were; bachelor: 284 (75.1%), age-group between 18 and 30 years: 312 (82.5%) and male: 207 (54.8%). Those that do not know the range of infected population in the country accounted for 260 (72.2%). In opinion, 57 (15.1%) supported that SARS-COV-2 cannot survive the warm climate of African continent, and 41 (10.8%) believed the hoax theory about COVID-19. Unapproved herbal medication was reported to be used by 251 (66.4%) of the respondents while 92 (24.3%) made use of Chloroquine. For transmission related conceptions, 52 (13.8%) indicated that an asymptomatic carrier cannot spread the virus to another healthy individual. About half of the respondents 182 (48.1%) suspected that SARS-COV-2 was an engineered virus and 173 (45.8%) supported that there are underlying negative intentions on the clinical trial of COVID-19 vaccines on Africans. There is a weak correlation between the demographic data of the respondents and the claims. The level of misconception Nigerians have about COVID-19 is a major concern. Thus, it is imperative to continuously engage in community awareness and education using proven facts about the virus, and its available prophylaxis measures in order to avoid the dangers that are associated with the prevailing misconceptions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Misinformation, Vaccine conspiracy, COVID-19, Compliance </p> Kayode Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 2 15 469 482 10.4314/ijma.v2i15.4 The Northern Migrations from a drying Sahara (6,000 years BP): cultural and genetic influence in Greeks, Iberians and other Mediterraneans https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijma/article/view/207738 <p>Greeks have a Sub-Saharan gene input according to HLA and other autosomic markers. Iberians, Canarians, and North Africans show a close genetic relatedness. This is concordant with a drying humid Sahara Desert, which may have occurred about 6,000 years BC, and the subsequent northwards emigration of Saharan people may have also happened in Pharaonic times. Present study confirms this African gene input in Greeks according to 12th HLA International Workshop data, which was studied some years before by us. This genetic input into Atlantic and Mediterranean Europe/Africa is also supported with Lineal Megalithic Scripts in Canary Islands (as well as in Iberia) together with simple Iberian semi-syllabary rock inscriptions both at Canary Islands and Ti-m Missaou (Algeria, Central southern Sahara). Lineal African/European scripts are found in some language scripts like Berber/Tuareg, Iberian, Runes, Etruscan, Bulgarian (Sitovo and Gradeshnitza, 6,000 years BP), Italian Old Scripts (Lepontic, Venetic, Raetic), Minoan Lineal A, and other Aegean scripts. The possibility that Megalithic Lineal Scripts have given rise to these languages lineal writing is feasible because admixture of languages rock scripts and Megalithic Lineal Scripts may be found. Thus, resistance of Canarian aborigines (Guanches) to Cartago, Rome and Arabs left a bulk of Canarian-Saharan information which is used to study both Saharan and Canarian Prehistory, and also Atlantic and Mediterranean beginning of European and other civilizations: this preserved prehistoric inheritance may be named the “Saharo-Canarian Circle” of prehistoric knowledge. Also, linguisticsepigraphy, physical anthropology ,archaeology and domesticated cattle shows a close North Africa-Iberia Mesolithic/Neolithic relationship and demonstrates that the demic diffusion model does not exist in Iberia. Also, Tassili Sahara paintings of domesticated cattle appear 1,000 years before that agricultural practices started at Middle East.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Greeks, Macedonians, Sahara, Africa, Iberia, HLA, Genetics, Spaniards, Portuguese, Berbers, Algerians, demic, diffusion, Canary Islands, Lanzarote, Malta, Cart-ruts, Quesera, Cheesboard, Iberian, language, Guanche, Usko-Mediterranean, Phoenicians</p> Antonio Arnaiz-Villena Ignacio Juarez José Palacio-Grüber Adrián Lopez-Nares Fabio Suarez-Trujillo Copyright (c) 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 2 15 484 507 10.4314/ijma.v2i15.5