Treatment with methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaf reversibly normalizes urine protein-creatinine ratio in Wistar rat model of gentamicin-induced kidney injury
Background: Due to its rapid onset of action, high antibacterial efficacy and low cost, gentamicin (GEN) is still been used (particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries) despite its nephrotoxic antibiotic effects. Experimental ethno-botanical evaluations are imperative in a world with increasing incidence of kidney injury; a condition that is expensive to treat or manage.
Aim: Effects of methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaf (MOGL) on urine proteincreatinine ratio (UPC) was determined in rats with GEN-induced kidney injury.
Methods: This study involved the use of 50 rats such that graded doses of MOGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) were administered following 8 days exposure to GEN (100 mg/kg i.p) and comparison were made against the control, toxic, 2 weeks and 4 weeks MOGL treatment groups at p <0.05.
Results: GEN induced nephrotoxicity as depicted by significant perturbations in plasma and urine levels of creatinine and total protein (p <0.05); significantly lowered creatinine clearance and abnormal elevations of UPC as well as deleterious alterations of the kidney antioxidant system (GSH and TBARS) (p <0.05). Histopathological examination showed glomerular atrophy, formation of densely eosinophilic/ colloid cast within the tubules and severe loss of cellular constituents in the medullary interstitium. When compared with the control, these conditions were significantly normalized after 2 week MOGL treatment (p <0.05) with a deleterious reversal from normalcy at 4 week MOGL treatment (p <0.05).
Conclusion: This study substantiated that MOGL has therapeutic potentials that becomes deleterious after sub-chronic administration in rat model of GEN-induced kidney injury.
Key words: Gentamicin, renal function test, Ocimum gratissimum, urine protein-creatinine ratio, creatinine clearance, antioxidant system