Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a clinical entity with multiple causes characterized by increased glomerular permeability and manifested by massive proteinuria. Hyperlipidaemia has been found to be one of the cardinal manifestations of nephrotic syndrome. Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the lipid profile and cardiovascular risk of nephrotics in this locality. Methods: Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) as well as atherogenic index (AI), coronary risk index (CRI) and non- HDL cholesterol were determined in ninety-six subjects. Forty-eight were nephrotic patients while others were apparently healthy individuals used as controls. Result: TC, TG, and LDL-C of nephrotics was observed to be significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with control subjects. Similarly, AI, CRI and non-HDL-C of nephrotics were observed to be significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with control subjects. VLDL-C of both groups was observed to show no significant difference statistically (P>0.05). HDL-C of nephrotics was observed to be significantly lower (P<0.05) when compared with control subjects. Conclusion: The result indicates apparent lipid derangement in nephrotic syndrome which may lead to cardiovascular disease. We therefore recommend that full lipid panel should be included in the investigation of suspected nephrotics to complement early diagnosis of the syndrome and to prevent further complications that could arise from the syndrome.
Keywords: Nephrotic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, lipid profile, hyperlipideamia, coronary risk index, atherogenic index