Background: Numerous molecular markers for bladder cancer have been identified and investigated with various laboratory techniques. Molecular markers are isolated from tissue, serum and urine. They fall into proteomic, genetic and epigenetic categories. Some of molecular markers show promising results in terms of facilitating early diagnosis and guiding treatment. Molecular markers or the so- called biomarkers can provide additional information alongside staging, grading and lymphovascular invasion, for better prognostication.
Aim:This studyprovides an up-to-date review of the frequently studied and most important biomarkers that have shown consistent relevance in relation to bladder cancer.
Methods: The key words were searched on the PubMed, Google scholar and NHS library search engines.
Results: More than twenty biomarkers as per our methodology were identified but only half of them have shown consistence relevance in bladder cancer.
Conclusion: It is envisaged that a combination of a few biomarkers, which are investigated frequently and have shown clinical relevance, could possibly provide useful information in predicting recurrence and provide useful prognostic information. So far none of the biomarkers for bladder cancer are adopted in the UK standard practice. Despite that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had approved some of these biomarkers, none of the urology associations incorporated them in to their guidelines as yet. However, it won’t be long before a final consensus is reached to integrate molecular staging in to the current TNM staging system.
Key words: Molecular markers, biomarkers, proteomics, tumour markers, bladder cancer, oncology