Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using the online submission and  review web site or email directly to the editor in chief (  This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. Authors are requested to  submit the text, tables, and graphs in electronic form to this address. Authors who are unable to  provide an electronic version or have other circumstances that prevent online submission must  contact the Editor prior to submission to discuss alternative options. The Publisher and Editor regret  that they are not able to consider submissions that do not follow these procedures. Only articles  typed with LATEX is acceptable. However, authors who cannot type in LATEX can be assisted at a  token price.  

Submission checklist 

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the Journal for  review. 

Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. 

Ensure that the following items are present: 

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: • E-mail address 

  • Full postal address 

The email addresses and contact addresses of all the authors must be included in the front  page of the paper. 

All necessary files have been uploaded: 


Include keywords 

AMS 2000 Subject Classification 

  • All figures (include relevant captions) 
  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes) 
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided 
  • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print 

Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations 

  • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked' 
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the  Internet) 
  • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to  declare 


Authors must not use the words, figures, or ideas of others without attribution. All sources must be  cited at the point they are used, and reuse of wording must be limited and be attributed or quoted  in the text. 

Manuscripts that are found to have been plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether  published or unpublished, will be rejected and the authors may incur sanctions. Any published  articles may need to be corrected or retracted. 

Declaration of interest 

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations  that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. 

Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership,  honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 

  1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file or the manuscript file. If there are  no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary  statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 
  2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the  journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that  the information matches. 

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in  the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for  publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the  responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published  elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the  written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the  originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check or Eagle Scan. 


Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with IJMSO's sharing policy.  Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication. 

Changes to authorship 

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their  manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any  addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only  before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Journal Editor. To request such  a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: 

(a) the reason for the change in author list and 

(b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or  rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the  author being added or removed. 

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of  authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication  of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue,  any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum. 

Open access 

This Journal offers authors Online Open Access only. 


  • Open access publication fee payable by authors is N20,000 Naira or forty dollars only ($40).
  • The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository. • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public for reuse. 

For all articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user  licenses: 

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 

Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions,  adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective  work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as  they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article,  and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation. 


Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of  these). 


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article  details and uploading your files. All submitted articles must be typed with LATEX. All correspondence,  including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail. 

Double-blind review 

This Journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from  the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please  include the following separately: 

Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations,  acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the  corresponding author including an e-mail address. 

Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures,  tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the  authors' names or affiliations. As this journal has adopted a double blind reviewing policy, please  remove all identifying features from the paper itself by ensuring that no author's name appears in 

the main text, in-text citations, reference list, or any running header. Replace all references to the  author with, "Author, 2003", "Author et al, 2006", etc. The title of the article and the name of the  journal or book, etc., should also be removed from these references. 

Article structure 

Subdivision - numbered sections 

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1  (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering  also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief  heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. 


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature  survey or a summary of the results. 


Results should be clear and concise. 


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results  and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published  literature. 


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand  alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section. 


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in  appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix,  Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc. 

Essential title page information

  • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid  abbreviations and formulae where possible. 
  • Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each  author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses  in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where  

the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript  letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full  postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of  each author. 

  • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing  and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries  about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details  are kept up to date by the corresponding author. 
  • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was  done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a  footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be  retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. 


A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length: 200 words). The abstract should state  briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often  presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References  should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or  uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first  mention in the abstract itself. 


Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that  convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the  online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points  (maximum 125 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on  our information site. 


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms  and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only  abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing  purposes. 


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and  do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here  those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing  assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). 

Formatting of funding sources 

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: 

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the  Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of  Peace [grant number aaaa]. 

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards.  When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other  research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding. 

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: 

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or  not-for-profit sectors. 


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word  processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate  the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the  article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. 


Electronic graph/diagram 

General points 

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original graph/diagram. • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. 
  • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or  use fonts that look similar. 
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. 
  • Use a logical naming convention for your graph/diagram files. 
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately. 
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version. • Submit each illustration as a separate file. 

A detailed guide on electronic graph/diagram is available. 

You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. Formats 

If your electronic graph/diagram is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint,  Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. 

Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic graph/diagram  is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the  resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts. 

TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of  500 dpi. 

Please do not: 

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low  number of pixels and limited set of colors; 
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution; 
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content. 

Color graph/diagram 

Please make sure that graph/diagram files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF),  or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit  usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in 

color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are  reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive  information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate  your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic  graph/diagram. 

Figure captions 

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A  caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration.  Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations  used. 


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the  relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in  accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be  sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results  described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells. 


Citation in text 

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice  versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal  communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If  these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of  the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results'  or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been  accepted for publication. 

Note that the order of articles in the reference page(s) should be according to the order of  citation in the body of the text.

Reference links 

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the  sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as  Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please  note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link  creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the  DOI is encouraged. 

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation  details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so  you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an  article not yet in an issue is: Johnson J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003).  Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of  Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such  citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper. 

Web references 

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any  further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.),  should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a  different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. 

Data references 

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them  in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the  following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly  identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2814-0230