Evaluation of the Bacterial Status of Water Samples at Umudike Abia State Nigeria
The bacteriological status of different water samples (borehole, sachet, bottled, stream and rain) from Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria and its environs was evaluated. The total viable count (TVC) for the borehole I (MOUAU) and borehole II (Umuwaya) were 14.7x102 and 15.7x102 cfu/ml respectively, while the sachet water samples, Onuine and De-Lunar had 15.0 x102 and 14.7x102 cfu/ml counts respectively. The bottled water samples Ragolis and Eva on the other hand had 15.7 x102 and 14.07x102 cfu/ml respectively whereas the rainwater sample had 21.7 x102cfu/ml. All the samples passed the total count for aerobic mesophiles according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Standards. However, the stream water samples failed the TVC test having 30.67x102 and 33.70x102 cfu/ml respectively, which were higher than the 1x105 cfu/ml standard of WHO, indicative of their unwholesomeness. The coliform count results indicated that the sachet, bottled, rainwater samples were of acceptable quality having no coliforms at all. The borehole II (Umuwaya) had 2 coliform population, which was within the WHO permissible limit but the stream water samples recorded coliform population of 9, higher than the WHO standard of 3 coliform population per 100 ml, thereby conferring potential hazard on them. The test for the occurrence of bacteria isolates indicated that the borehole II (Umuwaya) sample and both stream water samples had E. coli (33.3%). Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas spp. occurred in all the test samples, while other isolated organisms, with varying percentages of occurrence included Bacillus spp.(77.78%), Proteus spp.(66.67%), Serratia spp.(55.5%) and Vibro spp.(22.2%). The occurrence of the water borne pathogens appeared limited to the stream water samples, hence, continuous consumption without adequate treatment is potentially dangerous.
Keywords: Water, rainwater, stream, bacteria, coliforms, pathogen