Ife Journal of Science 2021-01-25T17:21:12+00:00 Prof. A. O. Ogunfowokan Open Journal Systems <p><span><em>Ife Journal of Science</em> (IJS) aims to publish articles resulting from original research in the broad areas of chemical, biological, mathematical and physical sciences. This extends naturally into frontiers that include the applied areas of Biochemistry and Geology as well as Microbiology and such allied fields as Biotechnology, Genetics, Food Chemistry, Agriculture, Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Shorterlength manuscripts may be accepted as Research notes. Review articles on research topics and books are also welcome.</span></p><p><span>Other websites associated with this journal: </span></p><p>IJS website: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a><br />Also accessible through: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Adsorption of Fe , Pb , Zn and Cr ions from aqueous solutions using natural, ammonium oxalate and sodium hydroxide modified Kaolinite clay 2021-01-25T09:00:14+00:00 J.A Lawal E.O. Odebunmi F.A. Adekola <p>In this paper, Fe<sup>2+</sup> , Pb<sup>2+</sup> , Zn<sup>2+</sup> and Cr<sup>6+</sup> ions removal from contaminated water with natural Nigerian kaolinite clay (AK-clay), and that removed with kaolinite clay modified with either ammonium oxalate (AK-AO) or sodium hydroxide (AK-S) were presented. The clay was characterized using X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunanuer-EmmettTeller (BET) method. The parameters investigated include pH, adsorbent particle size, shaking speed, metal ion concentration and temperature. The optimum conditions were applied to the modified samples. Design-expert software was used to design the experimental conditions using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The mineralogical characterization showed the purified 63 µm fraction of the clay as kaolin. Analysis of Variance shows the adsorption of the metal ions was statistically significant with p-valves &gt; 0.0001 at 95 % confidence limit. Pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to fit the adsorption data for all the metal ions. The&nbsp; adsorption of Fe<sup>2+</sup> , Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Cr<sup>6+</sup> ions was best described by the Langmuir isotherm model, while Freundlich&nbsp; isotherm model best fitted the adsorption data for Zn<sup>2+</sup> ion. Thermodynamic analysis of adsorption data shows the metal ions adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and accompanied by positive entropy change.&nbsp; &nbsp;Compared to unmodified natural clay, AK-S clay increased adsorption capacity for Fe<sup>2+</sup> , Pb<sup>2+</sup> , Zn <sup>2+</sup> and Cr <sup>6+</sup> ions from 14.1 to 18.425 mg/g, 18.4 to 19.8 mg/g, 16.875 to 19.9 mg/g and 7.65 to 8.15 mg/g respectively. The AK<sup>2+</sup>&nbsp; AO<sup>2+</sup> clay increased the uptake of Fe ion from 14.1 to 17.35 mg/g with a slight increase for Zn ion (16.875 to 16.95 mg/g). The adsorption capacity of AK-clay for all the metal ions was enhanced by NaOH modification <sup>2+</sup> while the ammonium oxalate modification significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity only for Fe ion. The results show that NaOH and ammonium oxalate modified kaolinite clay are effective for remediation of heavy metal-laden wastewater.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Kaolinite, metal ions, adsorption, kinetics, adsorption isotherm</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Palynostratigraphic and palynofacies analysis of x and y wells, offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria 2021-01-25T09:11:34+00:00 S.L. Fadiya S.O. Ogunleye A.B. Oyelami F.R. Aroyewun <p>A detailed palynostratigraphic and palynofacies study was carried out on two shallow offshore wells, codenamed Well X and Well Y, from the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. The study is aimed at establishing the age and palaeoenvironment of the sedimentary sequences penetrated by the wells. Standard palynological/palynofacies laboratory procedures were used to free the palynomorphs and palynomacerals from the embedding matrices.<br>Prepared palynological slides were studied using the Leitz Ortholux II transmitted light microscope. The palynofloral assemblages recorded from the two well sequences include well-preserved palynomorphs such as <em>Zonocostites ramonae, Monoporites annulatus, Retitricolporites irregularis, Cyperaceaepollis sp., Echitricolporites spinosus and Nymphaeapollis clarus</em> among others. The recognition of diagnostic pollen of Cyperaceaepollis sp. and Nymphaeapollis clarus as well as the associated palynomorph assemblage aided the delineation of the well sequences into the P830, P840-P850 and P860 subzones of the P800 palynological zone in the late Miocene. The relative abundance of particulate organic matter (Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM),<em> Phytoclasts </em>and<em> Palynomorphs</em>) revealed the delineation of three palynofacies assemblages, PF-A, PF-B and PF-C, suggesting three distinct paleoenvironments of deposition. These paleoenvironments range from distal shelf through marginal to proximal with varying conditions from oxic, suboxic to anoxic, thus suggesting marginal marine to coastal deltaic environments of deposition for the sedimentary sequences penetrated by the two wells.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Late Miocene, Niger Delta, Paleoenvironment, Palynostratigraphy, Palynofacies.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Assessment of species diversity and distribution of woody species on selected plots in Olokemeji Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria 2021-01-25T09:29:17+00:00 D.M. Taiwo S.I. Udoh S.O. Olaoti-Laaro O.R. Jeminiwa M.S. Jeminiwa <p>The Assessment of forest species composition and species diversity is essential in understanding the status of tree population and diversity for conservation purpose. Olokemeji forest reserve is situated in the lowland rain&nbsp; forest of south-western Nigeria and it occupies a total land area of 58.88 km<sup>2</sup> . Six study plots of 50m<sup>2</sup> each were randomly selected and designated as Frequently Burnt Plot 1, Frequently Burnt Plot 2, Harvested Plot, Unharvested Unburnt Plot, Arable Plot 1 and Arable Plot 2 for the purpose of assessment of species diversity and distribution of woody species. Seven species of trees were identified belonging to five families. One hundred and eighty two stands were enumerated, with Unharvested Unburnt Plot having the highest number of trees at 50. The dominance index for the woody flora was 1 in Frequently Burnt Plot 1 and 2 as well as Arable Plot 1 and 2 except for the Harvested Plot that had the lowest (0.29) while the Unharvested Unburnt Plot had 0.75. Highest species richness was recorded at the Harvested Plot at 0.71. The species diversity in Harvested Plot was low (1.54), while it was extremely low in Unharvested Unburnt Plot (0.43). Evenness index was lowest in the Unharvested Unburnt Plot at 0.43. <em>Tectona grandis</em> had the highest relative importance value in the Frequently Burnt Plot 1. The low species richness and species diversity is a direct indication of anthropogenic interference in the study plots and the forest reserve; this requires urgent mitigation to prevent a total loss of its structure and function as expected of a forest reserve.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Species, Diversity, Evenness, Anthropogenic, Forest, Dynamics</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Diversity, antimicrobial characterization and biofilm formation of Enterococci isolated from aquaculture and slaughterhouse sources in Benin City, Nigeria 2021-01-25T09:37:25+00:00 E.O. Igbinosa A. Beshiru E.E.O. Odjadjare <p>The present study was designed to characterize <em>Enterococci</em> isolates obtained from water samples at aquaculture and slaughterhouse facilities in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 144 water samples were collected from aquaculture and slaughterhouse facilities. All samples were analyzed using classical microbiological and molecular-based methods. <em>Enterococc</em>i were identified using specific primer sets (genus and species specific primers) and are as follows: <em>E. faecalis</em> 36 (25.5%); <em>E. faecium</em> 39 (27.7%); <em>E. duran</em>s 19 (13.4%); <em>E. casseliflavus</em> 13 (9.2%); <em>E. hirae</em> 14 (9.9%) and other <em>Enterococcus</em> species 20 (14.2%). The resistance profile of the bacterial strains to antibiotics was as follows: [tetracycline (n=67, 47%)]; [vancomycin (n=74, 52%)]; [erythromycin (n=91, 64%)] and [penicillin (n=141, 100%)]. <em>Enterococci</em> virulence genes detected include: [gelE (n=120, 85.1%)]; [cylA (n= 52, 36.9%)]; [hyl (n=96, 68.1%)]; [esp (n=135, 95.8%)]; [ace (n= 127, 90.1%)] and [agg n=118, 83.7%)]. Antibiotic-resistant gene detected from the phenotypic resistant isolates were 55/74 (74.3%) vanA; 61/67 (91.1%) tetC; 122/141 (86.5%) blapse1 and 62/91 (68.1%) ermA. Antibiotic-resistant coupled with biofilm formation potential of <em>Enterococcus</em> species include penicillin+biofilm 116 (82.3%); erythromycin+biofilm 85 (60.3%); and vancomycin+biofilm 74 (52.3%). Findings from this study reveal that strains with the ability of forming biofilms have enhanced antimicrobial resistance. Continuous monitoring of slaughterhouses and aquaculture facilities is necessary to guarantee food safety.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Aquaculture, Biofilm,<em>Enterococcus</em>, Environments, Resistance, Slaughterhouse</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) <i>In vitro</i> antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic properties of leaf extract and fractions of <i>Pterocarpus mildbraedii</i> harms 2021-01-25T09:44:41+00:00 O.A. Fajobi B.O. Emma-Okon O.O. Oyedapo <p>The study was undertaken to evaluate the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic properties of methanolic extract (PMME) and fractions of the leaf of <em>Pterocarpus mildbraedii</em> with a view to exploring the therapeutic potentials of the plant especially as far as treatment and management of oxidative, inflammatory and heart related disorders are concerned. The study involved collection, identification, extraction with 80%<br>methanol, fractionation of hydromethanolic extract of <em>P. mildbraedii</em> leaves with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and nbutanol; evaluation of the contents for total phenolics, flavonoids as well as vitamins C and E. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of the plant using 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power, hydrogen peroxide reduction, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and stabilization of erythrocyte membrane and inhibition of albumin denaturation were also carried out. The total phenolic content ranged between 13.31 ± 0.12 and 234.99 ± 2.64 GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, flavonoid content ranged between 44.30 ± 0.74 and 228.74 ± 7.44 QE (quercetin equivalent)/g, vitamin C content was 11.98 ± 0.04 mg/g while vitamin E content was 8.62 ± 0.29 ìg/g. The fractions exhibited potent and significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities which are concentration-dependent, as well as appreciable thrombolytic activities. Moreover, the extract and fractions compared favourably with various reference drugs used in the study. It was observed that the extract and its fractions possessed bioactive components with beneficial effects in the management of oxidative, inflammatory and heart-related conditions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Pterocarpus mildbraedii</em> methanolic extract, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Thrombolytic, Membrane stability, Haemoglobin, Denaturation.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Haematology, serum biochemistry and condition factor of the African snakehead fish, <i>Parachanna obscura</i> from Nigeria’s hydrologic areas 2021-01-25T09:52:39+00:00 F.E. Osho B.O. Omitoyin E.K. Ajani <p>Rapid change in the conservation status of <em>Parachanna obscura</em> from least concerned to endangered species raises&nbsp; concerns over the health of the natural populations of this stock in Nigeria. This study therefore investigated the haematology, serum biochemistry and condition factor of <em>P. obscura</em> from Nigeria's freshwater environment to assess their wellbeing. All eight hydologic areas in Nigeria were purposively selected while one river in each of the basins was randomly chosen for sampling of P. obscura. These randomly selected rivers were from Anambra (Niger South), Imo (Eastern south) , Ibbi (Upper Benue), Kaduna (Niger Central), Katsina Ala (Lower Benue), Hadejia (Lake Chad), Ogun (Western Littoral) , and Sokoto (Niger North) rivers. Fish samples were collected quaterly for a year from fishermen's catch. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test were employed for data analysis. Percentage parked cell volume, lymphocytes, neutrophil and monocytes as well as haemoglobin and red blood cells were not significantly different (p&gt;0.05) across populations. However, other haematologic parameters differed significantly among the populations. Samples from river Ibbi had significantly higher levels of glucose (47.75±3.22 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (42.25±2.72 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (33.25±2.14 U/L) and blood urea nitrogen (1.91±0.31 mg/dL). Condition factors averaged 0.81±0.01. The present study showed that measured haematologic and serum biochemistry parameters as well as the condition factor were within normal reference values for <em>P. obscura</em> or similar tropical fish species reference values. Therefore, other causes of the decline in population of this species in Nigeria should be investigated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Parachanna obscur</em>a, Nigeria's freshwater environment, Population decline, Endangered tropical fish species.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Morphological characterization of natural populations of <i>Sarotherodon galilaeus </i>(Linnaeus, 1758) from three selected reservoirs in South Western, Nigeria 2021-01-25T09:59:31+00:00 T.E. Oladimeji M.O. Awodiran F.A. Ola-Oladimeji <p>Morphological characterization of <em>Sarotherodon galilaeus</em> (Linnaeus, 1758)from Opa, Asejire and Ero reservoirs in southwest, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the morphological heterogeneity or homogeneity among the three different populations and to determine whether there are morphotypes of this species in the selected study areas. Twenty five morphometric measurements and six meristic counts were recorded on 150 specimens; fifty from each reservoir population. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) were performed on the morphometric and meristic data using PAST software. All the clusters produced by the PCA and CVA analyses on the morphometric and meristic data overlapped widely; indicating a low level of morphological differentiation among the three populations of <em>Sarotherodon galilaeus</em>. The study concluded that the <em>Sarotherodon galilaeus</em> populations from Opa, Asejire and Ero reservoirs are morphologically similar and phenotypically inseparable.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Morphometric, Meristic, Morphological differentiation, Reservoirs in south-western Nigeria, <em>Sarotherodon galilaeus</em></p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Growth performance and feed utilisation in <i>Clarias gariepinus</i> fingerlings fed graded levels of melon (<i>Citrillus lanatus</i>) seed peel meal-supplemented die 2021-01-25T10:25:32+00:00 S.A. Adesina A.O. Ajibare O.G. Ebimowei <p>A fifty-six (56) day experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization in <em>Clarias </em><em>gariepinus</em> fingerlings fed with six iso-nitrogenous diets in which oven-dried melon (<em>Citrillus lanatus</em>) seed peel meal (MSPM) was substituted for yellow maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% inclusion levels. A total of 270 fingerlings of <em>C. gariepinus</em> (mean weight: 7.40 ± 0.02 g) were randomly allocated into eighteen plastic bowls (50-litre capacity) at 15 fish per bowl and fed the control and experimental diets twice daily at 5% of their body weight. Proximate composition of melon seed peel meal-supplemented diets and fish carcass was determined using standard procedures. Results showed that crude protein was highest (60.75%) in fish fed diet 2 (20% MSPMsupplemented diet) and least (58.21%) in fish fed diet 4 (60% MSPM-supplemented diet). Fish fed diet 2 (20%<br>MSPM-supplemented diet) had statistically (p &lt; 0.05) superior values of MWG (48.27 g), SGR (1.56%/day) and FCR (0.48) beyond which growth and feed utilization indices gradually declined with increased level of MSPM inclusion. This study demonstrated that 20% substitution level of oven-dried melon seed peel meal produced the best growth and feed utilization in <em>C. gariepinus.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Melon seed peel, Clarias gariepinus, Growth performance, Feed utilization</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of starter culture fermentation of milk on the production, sensory attributes and storage of Wara (a Nigerian unripened soft cheese) 2021-01-25T12:53:15+00:00 W.G. Ajibola S.M. Adeyemo B.O. Omafuvbe <p>This study investigated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from wara, a Nigerian unripened soft cheese, on the production of starter-mediated type with improved quality and longer shelf-life. Fresh cow milk was pasteurized and inoculated with&nbsp; standardized cells of Lactobacillus plantarum and o Lactobacillus acidophilus (singly and in combination) and incubated at 30 C for 24 h to ferment. The fermented (acidified) milk was then used to produce wara using juice extract of Calotropis procera as rennet. Viable cell counts and physicochemical properties were estimated in the fermenting milk, while organoleptic attributes of traditional and starter-mediated wara were determined following standard procedures. The wara samples were stored at 30±2 °C for 6 days during which samples were obtained daily for physicochemical and microbiological analysis. Overall, physicochemical analysis of the fermenting milk samples showed a gradual drop in pH, increase in total titratable acidity and diacetyl level with accompanied increase in viable count. Organoleptically, there was no significant difference (p&gt; 0.05) between the traditional and some of the starter-mediated wara. During storage, the starter mediated wara had the lowest bacteria count and extended shelf-life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wara, Starter culture, Shelf life, Sensory attributes, Fermentation.&nbsp;</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Geochemical assessment of heavy metal impact on soil around Ewu-Elepe Dumpsite, Lagos State, Nigeria 2021-01-25T13:28:37+00:00 A.O. Olorunfemi A.B. Alao-Daniel T.A. Adesiyan C.E. Onah <p>The concentrations of certain heavy metals in the top soils around the Ewu-Elepe dumpsite and its environs were determined with a view to&nbsp; ascertaining the level of metal pollution in the soils of the dumpsite vicinity. Thirty-two (32) soil samples were randomly collected within the dumpsite vicinity and one control sample was collected from a distance of about 9.0 km from the dumpsite. The samples were prepared according&nbsp; to standard procedures and analyzed for some heavy metals (Ni, Mn, Co, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer at the Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Geology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The geochemical data was subjected to both&nbsp; univariate and multivariate statistical treatments and comparisons were made with various world standards. The results obtained showed that the mean concentrations of Ni (12.00 ppm), Mn (525.60 ppm), Co (5.64 ppm), Cu (44.59 ppm), and Zn (105.28 ppm) were within the acceptable limits for agricultural soils while those of Cd (1.40 ppm) and Pb (33.74 ppm) exceeded the limits. Geo-accumulation index and contamination factor revealed that the soils around the dumpsite were moderately contaminated with Cd and slightly contaminated with Pb. The overall decreasing order of heavy metal concentration in the dumpsite soil is: Cd &gt; Pb &gt; Zn &gt; Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Co &gt; Ni. The study concluded that the soils around the Ewu-Elepe dumpsite was contaminated with Cd and Pb and as such should be discouraged in its usage for agricultural related purposes as these highly toxic trace elements can be absorbed by plants. A well-engineered landfill that takes into consideration the local geology and the topography of the area should be designed so as to prevent infiltration of leachates into the soil and shallow groundwater systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> - Heavy metals, Soil,Ewu-Elepe,Nigeria,Dumpsite,Contamination.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ground radiometric mapping of Ondo State Nigeria using gamma ray spectrometry and geographic information system 2021-01-25T14:08:25+00:00 S.T. Gbenu O.W. Makinde E. Ajenifuja S.F. Olukotun M.K . Fasasi F.O. Balogun K.T. Ogundele <p>The activity concentrations of U, Th and K in the soil samples of Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma spectrometry technique and the associated dose rates were calculated. The Kriging interpolation method was used to create the activity concentrations predictive maps of Ondo State with the aid of ArcGIS software. The validity of the predicted map values was established through validation and cross validation 238 processes. The activity concentrations ranged from 19.15±0.90 – 83.70±3.59 Bq/kg for U, 8.01±0.39 – 232 40 114.48±2.48 Bq/kg for Th and 2.75±0.13 – 501.98±24.56 for K. The absorbed dose rate was found to range -1 -1 from 39.39±0.21 to 177.24±5.23 nGyh with an average value of 90.94±3.13 nGyh . The predicted map obtained compares well with published values for the region. The root mean squared standardized errors 238 232 40 obtained were 1.021194, 1.024182 and 0.998373 for U, Th and K, respectively. These validated the appropriateness of the model used and the accuracy of the predicted values.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Soil, Radioactivity; Geographic Information Systems; Map; Gamma Ray Spectrometry </p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chickens offered extracts of dried Roselle plant (<i>Hibiscus sabdariffa</i>) calyx in drinking water 2021-01-25T14:34:24+00:00 E.K. Asaniyan V.O. Akinduro <p>The challenge of antibiotics resistance and the fatality of its residues in human and animal health led to the ban of antibiotic growth promoters in animal diets. This has prompted the search for alternatives; especially through phytobiotic investigations. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of aqueous dried calyx extract of roselle plant on the haematological and serum biochemical responses of broiler chickens with the aim of establishing its optimal level as nutrient additive. The five varying concentration levels- 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 ml of 2 litres of calyx extract solution per litre of drinking water were treatments T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Thirty broiler chickens were randomly assigned per treatment of three replicates each. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The results revealed significant differences in the haematological parameters. However, the values of white 3 3 blood cells (WBC) (11400.00×10 /µl - 13466.67×10 /µl), lymphocyte (ranged between 48.33 and 61.33%), monocytes (2.00-3.67%), eosinophils (1.67-5.00%) and basophil (0.00 – 1.00%) were within the normal range for healthy chickens. Hence, roselle plant aqueous extract maintained the haematological content of the blood. The level of lymphocyte revealed adequate production of antibodies that prevented the occurrence of bacterial infection or allergic condition throughout experimental period. The influence of aqueous roselle plant on the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and albumin (ALB) indicated uncompromised liver function. Therefore, haematological and serum biochemistry parameters showed enhanced health and the wellbeing of the broiler chickens. The 5 ml and 10 ml levels of the extract of dried roselle calyx in drinking water were found to be similarly optimal in terms of lymphocyte levels. Levels above 10 ml could be detrimental to the health and<br>wellbeing of the chickens.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Blood constituents, Chicken health, Drinking water, Roselle calyx extract </p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Phylogroup profiling and the genetic determinants of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing <i>Escherichia coli</i> isolated from clinical samples in lagos, Nigeria 2021-01-25T14:54:42+00:00 A.O. Olalekan F. Onwugamba B. Iwalokun <p><em>No Abstract.</em></p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Low temperature grain-scale retrograde alteration of detrital minerals in Ajali formation from Benin Flank Of Anambra Basin, Nigeria 2021-01-25T15:30:00+00:00 A. Adetunji A.B. Alao-Daniel <p>Petrographical study of detrital and authigenic minerals from the Ajali Formation in the Benin flank of Anambra Basin was carried out with the aim of interpreting the textural characteristics and alteration patterns. Samples were collected from Ayowgiri sand quarry site and along Fugar-Agenebode road where good exposures of the Ajali Sandstone occurred. Heavy minerals were concentrated using bromoform according to standard procedures. The heavy mineral concentrates were mounted on glass slides with araldite glue. In addition, thin sections of sandstone were prepared. The samples were studied with the aid of polarizing microscopes. The textural features and relationships among the heavy minerals were used in the interpretations. The results indicate that the detrital heavy minerals (Fe-Ti oxides and garnet) have undergone a very low-temperature<br>retrograde changes rather than ordinary in-situ dissolution by weathering and burial diagenesis. The alteration of Fe-Ti oxides resulted into the formation of leucoxene and chlorite while that of garnet resulted only into the formation of chlorite. Detrital magnetite was partially dissolved with skeletal remains while the authigenic grains showed well preserved structures. The re-equilibration of these minerals and partial dissolution were probably due to rise in temperature and change in the chemistry of the formation water. Reducing and acidic conditions at elevated temperature probably favoured dissolution and alteration of the detrital Fe-oxides while the formation of authigenic hematite was aided by oxidizing condition. Temperature increase was probably induced by either underneath thin lithospheric plate or igneous activities at the center of the basin. The conversion of the detrital minerals to authigenic chlorite and partial replacement structures represent a typical case of retrograde reaction which could be described as evidence of a very low-temperature anchi-metamorphism at mineral grain level.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Authigenic, chlorite, Fe-oxides, garnet, retrograde, anchi-metamorphism. </p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Synthesis of n-alkylated azabenzimidazoles, the base catalyzed isomerization of n-propagyl-allenyl azabenzimidazole and 1 their characterization 2021-01-25T15:45:30+00:00 Kola A. Oluwafemi <p>N-Allyl, N-pentyl, N-propiophenone, N-benzyl, N-p-nitrobenzyl, N-3,4-dichlorobenzyl and N-propargylsubstituted 7-azabenzimidazoles were prepared through a convenient method. Under basic condition, the Npropargyl substituted azabenzimidazole isomerized to its N-allenyl substituted isomer. It is believed that the Nallenyl isolated can serve as a vital precursor for the future preparation of medicinally bioactive cycloaddition derivatives of azabenzimidazole.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Azabenzimidazoles, N-Alkylation, Propargyl, Allene, Isomerization.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Valuation of levels of some carcinogenic metals in the water and incidences of cancer along Hadejia-Jama'are River Basin Areas 2021-01-25T16:04:20+00:00 A.N. Shaibu A.A. Audu <p>The determination of levels of some carcinogenic metals in the water and incidences of cancer was carried out in ten different local governments along Hadejia-Jama'are River Basin Areas, using standard procedures. Arsenic content was determined using UV Spectrophotometer after diazotization and heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The numbers of cancer patients were obtained from the Cancer Register of the health institutions along the basin after obtaining ethical approvals from the health institutions. The mean arsenic (As), of the water ranged from 3.35 – 10.60 µg/L, cadmium (Cd): 1.57 – 10.10 µg/L, chromium (Cr): 40.30 – 250.00 µg/L, nickel (Ni): 48.80 – 235.00 µg/L and lead (Pb): 19.50 – 38.20 µg/L. The metal concentrations in the water samples were higher in the dry season than the wet season. ANOVA showed significant differences at p&lt;0.05 for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. The cancer levels were determined by matching the concentration of the heavy metals from each local government with number of cancer patients in the local government along the river basin route. The cancer cases along the basin were Bunkure- 13, Wudil- 16, Ajingi11, Ringim- 9, Taura- 8, K/Hausa- 10, Hadejia- 12, Jama'are- 3, Gashua- 14 and Nguru- 10. Using the principal component analysis (PCA) there was an excellent relationship between cancer burden and metal loads in the potable water of the basin while the hierarchical cluster dendrogram (HCD) analysis reveals that arsenic, chromium and cadmium may be the major contributors to cancer incidences along the basin.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of different aqueous plant extracts against rice blast disease fungus (<i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i>) 2021-01-25T16:38:44+00:00 G.O. Agbowuro M. Aluko A.E. Salami S.O. Awoyemi <p>The antifungal potentials of some medicinal plant leaf extracts have been established against fungal diseases. This research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of aqueous plant leaf extracts of five plants: Apple of Sodom (<em>Calotropis procera</em>), Neem tree (<em>Azadirachta indic</em>a), Thorn&nbsp; Apple/Angel's trumpet (<em>Datura metel</em>), Aleo plant (<em>Aleo vera</em>) and Siam weed (<em>Chromolaena odorata</em>)) at different concentration (25, 50, and 100%) against rice blast disease (<em>Magnaporthe oryzae</em>) in-vitro and in-vivo. The research work was laid out in a split-split plot arrangement using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were collected for disease severity, disease incidence, number of tillers per plant, number of filled grains, the weight of 1000 grains, and panicle weight. The data collected were analyzed using IRRI STAR software (IRRI, 1979). Percentage inhibition was significantly higher at higher concentrations for all the aqueous plant extracts as compared to lower concentrations. The field trial result shows that there were significant differences among all the studied traits though at different levels for all the sources of variation. The leaf plant aqueous extracts at all the varied concentrations reduced the rate of disease severity and incidence while the number of tillers per plant, the number of filled grains, the weight of 1000 seeds, and panicle weight increased compared to control. The result revealed that Apple of Sodom (<em>Calotropis procera</em>) is the most efficient in combating rice blast disease followed by Neem tree (<em>Azadirachta indic</em>a), Thorn Apple/Angel's trumpet (Datura metel), Aleo plant (<em>Aleo vera</em>), and Siam weed (<em>Chromolaena odorat</em>a) in that other. These aqueous plant extracts can be used to manage rice blast disease at a low cost and it is ecofriendly compare to chemical fungicides.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Disease severity, Magnaporthe oryzae, Medicinal plants, Plant extracts, Rice </p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Multidrug resistant <i>Escherichia coli</i> among patients with gastrointestinal tract infections seeking health care services at Lafia, Nigeria 2021-01-25T17:20:07+00:00 Y. Ya'aba S.B. Mohammed A.S. Adamu S.R. Abdullahi G.M. Salihu Yakubu G. Japhet <p>Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in human plays an important role in providing habitat to various microbial communities including numerous prokaryotic cells numbering over 100 trillion. This study was aimed at accessing the multidrug resistance (MDR) of E. coli among patients with GIT infections seeking health care at Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital (DASH), Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) stool samples were collected using sterile sample containers from patients with symptoms of GIT infections in search of medical care in this hospital. The samples collected were processed using standard microbiological methods. Out of the total samples collected, 35.3% (53/150) revealed the presence of E. coli whereas 64.7% did not. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were found in 45.3% of <em>E. coli</em> obtained in this study, which were further used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test. <em>E. coli</em> were more resistant to ampicillin (75.51%), followed by amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (61.22%) and were least resistant to imipenems (12.25%). In conclusion, MDR <em>E. coli</em> producing ESBL are abundant among patients with GIT infections visiting DASH, Lafia. Thus, it is important to determine the genes responsible for this MDR as well as dissemination of adequate information to the masses visiting the hospital for treatment on the possible effects caused by the antibiotics abuse</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Escherichia coli,</em> Multiple-Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial, Gastrointestinal tract, Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, Microbiological methods</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)