Ife Journal of Science https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs <p><span><em>Ife Journal of Science</em> (IJS) aims to publish articles resulting from original research in the broad areas of chemical, biological, mathematical and physical sciences. This extends naturally into frontiers that include the applied areas of Biochemistry and Geology as well as Microbiology and such allied fields as Biotechnology, Genetics, Food Chemistry, Agriculture, Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Shorterlength manuscripts may be accepted as Research notes. Review articles on research topics and books are also welcome.</span></p><p><span>Other websites associated with this journal: </span></p><p>IJS website: <a title="www.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" href="http://www.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" target="_blank">www.oauife.edu.ng/ijs</a><br />Also accessible through: <a title="http://scholar.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" href="http://scholar.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" target="_blank">http://scholar.oauife.edu.ng/ijs</a></p> Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University en-US Ife Journal of Science 0794-4896 The Journal retains copyright. The influence of nitrogen supplementation on lipase production by <i>Aspergillus niger</i> using palm oil mill effluent https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206631 <p>No Abstract.</p> C.E. Oshoma E.D. Kolawole M.J. Ikenebomeh Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 1 10 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.1 Biological synthesis of copper nanoparticles and its antimicrobial potential on selected bacteria food-borne pathogens https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206635 <p>In this study, copper nanoparticle (CuNPs) was synthesized using green technology and the CuNPs was characterized with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) which confirmed the presence of copper. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the morphology and the average size was calculated to be 2.47 ± 1 nm. The functional groups were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and this revealed that OH functional group was anchored on the surface of the nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized<br>CuNPs was investigated at varying concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 mg/ml) dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). It was tested against five food borne pathogenic organisms: Salmonella typhimurium, Methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus&nbsp;</em> (MRSA), <em>Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, </em>and<em> Acinetobacter baumannii</em> using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion and agar well&nbsp;&nbsp; method. The results showed that the antimicrobial zone of inhibition increased with an increase in concentration of the CuNPs, an&nbsp; average diameter of 25 mm at 7 mg/ml, 22 mm at 5 mg/ml and an average diameter of 13 mm at 2 mg/ml of 100% DMSO.&nbsp; Nanoparticles at 0.25 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml concentration failed to produce any clear zone across all the test organisms while only <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> was sensitive with a clear zone diameter of 10 mm at 1 mg/ml CuNPs. MRSA has the least susceptibility: 9 mm clear zone diameter at 2 mg/ml and at 7 mg/ml clear zone diameter of 20 mm, relative to other tested organisms. The test organisms were not sensitive to the following conventional antibiotics: <em>Cefuroxime, Ceftazidime, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid </em>and<em> Cloxacillin,</em> but only sensitive to Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Ofloxacin. MRSA on the other hand was not sensitive to all the eight antibiotics tested but susceptible to the CuNPs. The results obtained from this study indicated that copper nanoparticles can be used in the food industry to control both Gram positive and negative bacteria tested.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Synthesis, Copper nanoparticles, Antimicrobial activities, Bacteria. </p> H.A. Aderolu O.O. Aboaba A.Z. Aderolu K.O. Abdulwahab A.A. Suliman U.C. Emmanuel Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 11 21 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.2 Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of Orange II by periodate ion in aqueous acid https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206642 <p>No Abstract.</p> B. Myek S.O. Idris A.D. Onu M.K. Yakubu Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 23 30 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.3 Phytoavailablility and fractionation of cadmium and lead in vegetable farm soils in Ilorin, north-central, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206643 <p>No&nbsp; Abstract.</p> P.O. Ben-Uwabor G.K. Olawepo C.O. Ogunkunle O.P. Fatoba Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 31 40 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.4 Germination and seedling growth in <i>Afzelia africana</i> Sm. ex. Pers. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206646 <p>This study determined the best pre–treatment regime required for germination of the seeds of Afzelia africana Sm.Ex.Pers. and also provided information on the early growth parameters of the plant seedlings. Seeds of A. africana were collected from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile – Ife (Lat 7° 32'N, Long 4° 31'E) and authenticated at the IFE-herbarium. One hundred and twenty five (125) seeds were sown per treatment (n=5 with 5 replicates and 5 repeats). Five (5) seeds each were sown in small petri dishes, without pre–treatment (control), or treated by subjecting to mechanical scarification and chemical scarification using Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid (H SO ) and Trioxonitrate (V) acid (HNO<sub>3</sub> ) for germination studies. Germination counts were made&nbsp; at an interval of 2 days. For the six different pre–treatments, five seedlings per plastic bowl were transferred into soil in a total of twenty plastic bowls laid out in a randomized design and their growth monitored for 40 weeks. Results showed that pre–treatment of seeds with mechanical&nbsp; scarification gave the highest percentage germination. Significant differences (P ˂ 0.05) occurred in the shoot height and in the number of leaves between 4 and 12 weeks of growth. The study established that pre–treatment with mechanical scarification was the best for uniform germination of seeds of the plant. This study has provided alternative means of pretreating A. africana seeds apart from using H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> – the first to subject seeds to mechanical scarification and 2 4 chemical scarification using HNO<sub>3</sub> , in addition to providing information on the germination parameters and the seedling growth rate of Afzelia africana.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Propagation, Growth, Acid, Scarification</p> E.R. Ogbimi A.M.A. Sakpere Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 41 50 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.5 Hepatitis E Virus Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and associated risk factors in southwest, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206647 <p>Hepatitis E is one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis worldwide, with an estimated 20 million infections and 70,000 deaths attributed to hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2 every year. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) in southwest (SW) Nigeria. Venous blood samples totalling 359 were collected from pregnant women on routine check, apparently healthy prospective blood donors and sick individuals presenting with fever and abdominal disturbance from health facilities in Ekiti, Lagos, Osun and Oyo states, of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire form was administered to gather socio-demographic data, health and travel history from each consenting participant. The screening for HEV IgM was done using HEV IgM ELISA kit. Statistical analyses, including descriptive analysis, correlations and binary logistic regression were carried out using SPSS version 21. In all, 131 samples (36.5%) tested positive for HEV IgM. Osun state had the highest occurrence of HEV IgM (n = 49; 13.6%,) while Ekiti had the least (n= 22; 6.1%). Apparently healthy participants with detectable HEV IgM were 52 (14.5%) while pregnant women<br>were 51 (14.2%). Risk factors implicated in this study were flooding and injection drug use. The overall HEV prevalence reported in this study was higher than previous reports in Nigeria . Higher HEV prevalence in this study could be due to a larger coverage area in the country as well as detection of ongoing infection. The detection of HEV IgM in pregnant women and apparently healthy prospective blood donors indicated ongoing infection with risk of spread to susceptibles since HEV is neither routinely screened for among pregnant women nor among prospective blood donors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hepatitis E, IgM, Pregnancy, Apparently healthy, ELISA Depth, Geothermal Energy </p> O.A. Adesina O.C. Shodunke O.O. Adedara A.O. Oluyege Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 51 62 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.6 Impact of doubling the recommended dose of Magicforce (Lambda-Cyhalothrin + Dimethoate) on major associated arthropods and performance of watermelon https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206648 <p>Some crop growers hold the view that application of pesticides at higher than the manufacturer's recommended doses results in better pest control and crop productivity. The veracity of this perception was evaluated in field experiments at the experimental field of Federal University Wukari. A recommended insecticide and acaricide; ® Magicforce (Lambda-cyhalothrin 15g/L + Dimethoate 300 g/L) was evaluated against insect pests of watermelon (<em>Citrullus lanatus</em> Thunb.) and other associated beneficial arthropods. The&nbsp; experiments were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five treatments (control inclusive). Data collected includes&nbsp; arthropod (pest and beneficial) densities, crop growth, and number of fruits at the early-fruiting stage which were analyzed using&nbsp; variance analysis after appropriate transformations. Student's t-test was used to compare early- and lateseason's variables while&nbsp; correlation and regression analyses were used to determine relationships between key variables. Results showed that plots treated with double the highest manufacturer's recommended dose of ® Magicforce (cost implication of ₦ 144,000) had lower pest (leaf beetle species and <em>Bactrocera cucurbitae</em>) and beneficial arthropod (predatory ants, spiders and Apis mellifera) densities than those treated with the lowest (cost – ₦ 48,000) and highest (cost – ₦ 72,000) recommended doses. Their plant growth (vine length and number of leaves) and fruit production were however comparatively lower though largely statistically comparable. The ® relationship between the quantity of Magicforce applied and number of fruits produced were though positive, 2 2 only moderate and insignificant in both early- (r = 0.665, R = 44.3%, p = 0.220) and late- (r = 0.659, R = 43.4%, p = 0.227) crops. The results revealed that the application of double the manufacturer's recommended dose of ® Magicforce (with its comparatively higher cost implication of 100 – 200%) suppressed growth&nbsp; of watermelon by 1.96 – 6.20%, and impeded fruit production by 9.14 – 13.30%. While there is need to verify the mechanism of this key finding, the need to source for genuine pesticides and follow manufacturer's recommended doses a re highlighted.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Arthropods, Insect pests, Organophosphate, Pesticide over-dose, Pyrethroid, Watermelon</p> E. Okrikata H. Agere I.O. Adepoju S.P. Malu Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 63 75 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.7 Pesticide residues in selected vegetables from Gombe markets, Gombe State, Nigeria: assessing the health impact https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206649 <p>The study determined the content of pesticide residues in vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, calyces, and tiger nut), obtained from markets in Gombe, Nigeria. Health risk parameters were also determined to evaluate the health risk associated with their consumption. A total of 72 samples (cabbage, lettuce, calyces and tiger nut) were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS Detector (HPLC-UV/VIS). A total of 18 pesticide residues were detected: nine organochlorines (OCs), five organophosphates (OPs), and&nbsp; four pyrethroids (PYs). The residual contents of nine OCs ranged from 0.00 to 0.098 μg/kg and found in 61.87%, 60.99%, 63.69%, and 63.89% of cabbage, lettuce, calyces and tiger nut samples respectively, five OPs with concentrations ranging from 0.00 to 0.043 μg/kg were found in 22.69%, 21.89%, 19.49% and 22.21% of cabbage, lettuce, calyces and tiger nut samples respectively. In similar order, four PYs with concentrations that ranged from 0.00 to 0.046 μg/kg were found in 15.44%, 17.04%, 16.82% and 13.89% of the vegetables. The<br>mean estimated daily intake of pesticides in the studied samples was lower than that of acceptable daily intakes. The hazard index obtained was less than one, indicating no probable adverse health effect on both children and adult consumers. However, monitoring and continuous stringent regulation should be imposed with regard to the usage of pesticides in vegetables, and other food stuff for public health protection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hazard Index, Health risk, Nut, Pesticide residues, Vegetables </p> A.U. Maigari M.B. Sulaiman M. Buhari A.O. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 77 87 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.8 GC-MS analyses of young and mature Archidium Ohioense Schimp Ex. C. Mull and <i>Philonotis hastate</i> (Duby) Wijk & Margad extracts https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206650 <p>Analyses of the constituents of the crude extracts obtained from young and mature moss species namely: Archidium ohioense and <em>Philonotis hastata</em> were conducted with a view to investigating the effects of maturity stages on their bioactive constituents. The mosses collected from their natural population were air dried at ambient temperature in the laboratory, extracted with methanol and the crude extracts subjected to gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results of the analyses showed the presence of 20 compounds in young <em>A. ohioense</em> with n-hexadecanoic acid [26.60%], bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [12.47%], bicyclo (3.1.1)<br>heptane 2,6,6-trimethyl-[1r-(1.alpha.,2.beta.,5.alpha.)]- [11.59%] and phytol [9.69%] forming the prominent components while in the mature A. ohioense, 13 compounds were present, from which n-hexadecanoic acid [51.25%], hexadecanoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-ethyl ester [9.90%] and n-propyl 9-octadecenoate [7.47%] formed the prominent components. In <em>P. hastata</em>, 20 compounds were identified in the young stage sample with n-hexadecanoic acid [22.46%], bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [20.95%] and phytol [18.14%] as the prominent components while 9 compounds were identified in the mature sample with n-hexadecanoic acid<br>[51.84%], hexadecanoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester [18.12%] and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [9.11%] which formed the prominent components. The study indicated that, maturity stages at collection of the mosses affected their bioactive compositions, with the young stage mosses showing more bioactive compounds than the mature ones.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>A. ohioense, P. hastata,</em> Mosses, Maturity stages, Crude extract, GC-MS. </p> M.O. Isa B.A. Akinpelu A.M. Makinde Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 89 103 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.9 Assessment of morpho-variability between bruchid tolerant AND SUSCEPTIBLE cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) accessions https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206651 <p>Cowpea bruchid is a major constraint to cowpea production. Easy identification of resistant/tolerant accessions to bruchid infestation has been a major challenge in bruchid resistant breeding programmes. Hence, the study was aimed to evaluate variations in some morphological characters between some bruchid resistant/tolerant and susceptible cowpea accessions, correlating them with their bruchid tolerance status in the hope of identifying a pointer character(s) that can facilitate easy identification of bruchid tolerant among cowpea germplasm. Sixty accessions were collected and evaluated for bruchid tolerance. Accessions were then grouped into bruchid susceptible and bruchid tolerant. These accessions were planted in Randomized Complete Block Design with ten replicates. Morphological differences between groups were evaluated accordingly. Of the sixty accessions evaluated, fifty-two were susceptible while eight were bruchid tolerant. No qualitative differences were observed between bruchid susceptible and tolerant groups, however significant differences were observed in quantitative characters which include terminal leaflet length, terminal leaflet/width ratio, leaf petiole length, terminal leaflet petiole length (TLPL), leaf petiole length, pod length (PDL), pod width, total number of pods per plant, seed length (SDL), seed width (SDW), seed thickness (SDTK) and 100 seed weight (100SDW). Bruchid tolerance was significantly positively correlated with seed characters which include, SDL (r = 0.798, p &lt; 0.01); SDW (r = 0.798, p &lt; 0.01); SDTK (r = 0.758, p &lt; 0.01);<br>100SDW (0.830, p &lt; 0.01) and significantly negatively correlated with TLPL and PDL (p &lt; 0.05). These characters can provide easy identification of bruchid tolerant among cowpea germplasm, hence requires further investigations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cowpea, V<em>igna unguiculata,</em> Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, Morphology </p> O.D. Amusa L.A. Ogunkanmi Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 105 114 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.10 Preservation of antioxidant defense system by Morin in bicalutamide-induced rat testicular toxicity https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206652 <p>Bicalutamide (BCT) is a potent anti-androgen chemotherapeutic drug indicated for prostate cancer. However, BCT is known to cause oxidative stress and impairment of male reproductive function. Whereas Morin (MOR), a flavonoid has been found to be a potent antioxidant, with free radical scavenging capacity. This study investigated the protective effect of MOR on BCT-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were randomized into four groups (n=6/group). Group I which served as control received distilled water. Group II, received 3 mg/kg body weight (bwt) BCT orally (per os); group III received 3 mg/kg/day BCT p.o. plus 100 mg/kg/d MOR p.o. and group IV received 100 mg/kg/d MOR p.o. All treatments lasted for 14 days, thereafter, animals were sacrificed and epididymis and testis were collected for sperm and biochemical analyses. The result revealed that BCT treatment caused a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology. Sperm production, sperm count, motility and viability were significantly reduced when compared with control (p&lt;0.05). Similarly, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx),<br>glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, as well as ascorbic acid and GSH levels were significantly reduced in the BCT- treated animals when compared to control (p&lt;0.05). Conversely, testicular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenese (LDH) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of BCT-treated animals&nbsp; increased significantly relative to control (p&lt;0.05). However, co-treatment with Morin ameliorated BCT-induced alterations in sperm parameters, ascorbic acid, GSH and MDA levels, as well as LDH, SOD, CAT, GST, GPX, ACP, ALP and GGT activities. Data obtained from this study suggest that Morin protected against altered sperm parameters and testicular oxidative stress caused by BCT.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bicalutamide, Anti-androgen, Testis, Oxidative stress, Morin, Antioxidant, Rat </p> E.T. Olayinka A. Ore O.O. Olotu V.U. Ogbuji O.A. Adeyemo O.S. Ola Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 115 122 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.11 Prevalence of otitis media in children attending a Primary Health Care Center in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206653 <p>Otitis media is an inflammatory disease of the mucosal lining of the middle ear. It occurs more frequently in children due to the shorter and more horizontal eustachian tube in their ears. The focus of this study is determining the prevalence of otitis media in children aged 6 months – 10 years attending a primary health care facility in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Fifty swabs from ear discharge and imparted wax were obtained from the study subjects regardless of whether they were presenting with symptoms of otitis media or not. Information on certain symptoms, as well as demographic and risk factors was obtained through the use of questionnaires. A prevalence of 54% of otitis media was obtained in this study. The following bacterial species were isolated: <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.7%), Escherichia coli (25.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.3%), Proteus mirabilis (8.6%),</em> Coagulase negative <em>Staphylococci (</em>8.6%) and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em> (3.7%). The infection was observed to be higher in children in the age range, six months to two years. Risk factors such as the use of cotton buds in cleaning the ear, posture of the child during breast-feeding and not being exclusively breast-fed were shown to be very prominent among the children studied. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that among the Gram negative bacteria isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to more than two antibiotics. <em>Coagulase</em> negative Staphylococcus was resistant to all the antibiotics except <em>Ceftriaxone, Streptomycin </em>and<em> Cefuroxime.</em> On the other hand, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was susceptible to all the antibiotics tested with the exception of Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone and Ampiclox. Therefore, it is recommended that antibiotic susceptibility testing be conducted before treatment of otitis media in children. The importance of exclusive breast-feeding and good personal hygiene should be emphasized to nursing mothers.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Otitis media, Children, Bacteria, Antibiotics, Zaria </p> H.I. Atta F.F. Umar Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 123 130 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.12 Adsorption of methylene blue on corncob charcoal: Thermodynamic studies https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206654 <p>To obtain the thermodynamic properties of adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on corncob carbonaceous adsorbents - untreated (UCC) and acid treated (TCC) - their equilibrium adsorption was determined between 10 <sup>o</sup>– 40<sup>o</sup> C at different pH conditions. The adsorption isotherms were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models. The point of zero charge of each of the adsorbents was also determined. The point of zero charge was 10.58 ±0.09 for TCC, and 7.55 ± 0.10 for UCC. Only Freundlich model could account for the observed thermodynamic properties of MB adsorption by the adsorbents, though Temkin and Langmuir models have higher correlation coefficients. MB adsorption by TCC was an entropically driven process which depends on pH;ΔS<sup>o</sup> at pH 10.5 &lt; ΔS<sup>o</sup> at pH 8.0 &lt;ΔS<sup>o</sup> at pH 12.0. The ΔH<sup>o</sup> of the endothermic process at pH 12 is &gt; ΔH<sup>o</sup> at pH 8 &gt; ΔH<sup>o</sup> at pH 10.5. The results suggest that MB adsorption by the adsorbents occur by physisorption and is optimum when the pH is around the point of zero charge. It is important to ensure that in addition to fitting and equilibrium adsoption data by an isotherm model, the fit of the relevant equilibrium parameter should also be good and give thermodynamic quantities that could satisfactorily account for the observed adsorption properties of the system.&nbsp; Deciding the suitability of an isotherm model for fitting adsorption equilibrium experiment based on compared error function of the fitted curves or lines through single temperature isotherm could lead to erroneous conclusion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: adsorption, adsorbent; methylene blue; enthalpy; entropy; Freundlich </p> A.A. Fodeke O.J. Ayejuyone Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 131 144 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.13 Influence of smoking and natural preservatives on shelf – life and microbial quality of <i>Clarias gariepinus</i> during storage https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206655 <p>This study investigated the shelf – life and microbial quality of smoked <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> using Onion Bulb (OB), Holy Basil (HB) and Turmeric Rhizome (TR) as preservatives during 56 days storage. Sixteen <em>C. gariepinus</em> (1- 1.5kg) were distributed to four experimental containers: Control, TR2, OB3, and HB4 and the experiment were carried out in triplicates. <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> were smoked in a smoking kiln at 40<sup>o</sup> C- 60<sup>o</sup> C and 120-150 C for 6 and 18 hours respectively. Biochemical parameters, organoleptic assessment, and microbial analysis were carried out. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at P= 0.05. The result showed that the crude protein of <em>C. gariepinus</em> was<br>higher in the treated groups compared to the control. Also, the result shows that the biochemical parameters, organoleptic assessment and the microbial loads in smoked <em>C. gariepinus</em> were reduced in the OB, HB, and TR than the control at 1 day, 28 days and 56 days storage respectively. It can be concluded that the natural plants may enhance the shelf life, consumer acceptability, and inhibit the growth of the microbial pathogen in smoked fish.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Catfish, Onion bulb, Holy basil, Microbial loads, Turmeric, Preservatives</p> Sunday Emmanuel Olusola Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 145 151 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.14 Effect of processing conditions on quality of juice extracted from hog plum fruit https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206656 <p>The effect of processing conditions such as machine shaft speed, loading and level of ripeness of the Spondias mombin fruit on quality (i.e moisture, ash, fibre, fat and protein contents) of juice extracted were investigated in this study using a newly designed juice extractor for <em>Spondias mombin</em> fruit. The moisture content of the extracted juice was observed to initially decrease as the shaft speed increased from 120 to 130 rpm and then increased with increase in shaft speed from 130 to150 rpm. Increase in loading from 5 to 15 kg per time increased the moisture content of the juice at different shaft speeds. As the shaft speed and rate of loading per time increases, the ash content of the juice also increases. Increase in shaft speed also increased the fibre, fat and protein contents of the juice. The effect of the processing conditions considered indicates that separate and interactive effects of the three factors on the qaulity parameters of the juice were significant (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hog plum, Ripeness, Machine, Processing, Juice, Quality</p> I.O Olaoye Y.A. Salako B.D. Odugbose O.K Owolarafe Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 153 160 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.15 Potential medicinal plant remedies and their possible mechanisms against COVID-19: A review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206657 <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak was first reported in Wuhan, a city in Hubei Province of China in December, 2019 and is known to be responsible for the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March, 2020 and since then, it has caused a number of deaths in over 200 countries around the world. Extensive researches have continued in the search of effective vaccines or drug compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and a total of 64 vaccines are currently in clinical trials with 12 currently approved for use by different regulatory bodies, depending on the country. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, many countries have utilised traditional herbal medicines alongside conventional drugs for the treatment of infected patients. In this review, traditional medicines used to prevent or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection are listed along with the plant parts as used by the traditional healers. Additionally, the possible mechanisms responsible for this preventive or therapeutic outcome are also identified and listed. Our literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and WHO website. Unpublished reports such as<br>dissertations and theses are not included. Plant parts including roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and so on have been used in the treatment of COVID-19. These traditional medicinal herbs may exert their anti-COVID-19 activity by direct inhibition of the virus replication or entry. Some may act by blocking the ACE-2 receptor, SARS-CoV helicase, Type II Transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS2) and which are required by SARS-CoV-2 in order to infect human cells. Others act by inhibiting the SARSCoV-2 life-cycle related proteins, namely chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CL-pro) and Papain-like protease (PL-pro). Medicinal plants are promising alternative medicines for the treatment or prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further researches, are needed to decipher their active components and structures which may suggest clues for the development of drugs against this novel coronavirus.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19, medicinal plants, plant parts, mechanism of action, pandemic, </p> C.J. Ugwah-Oguejiofor I.M. Adebisi Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 161 194 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.16 Evaluation of geothermal energy resources in parts of southeastern sedimentary basin, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206658 <p>Residual aeromagnetic data of parts of Southeastern Nigerian sedimentary basin were reduced to the equator and subjected to magnetic vector inversion and spectral analysis. Average depths of source ensembles from spectral analysis were used to compute depth to magnetic tops (Z), base of the magnetic layer (Curie Point t Depth (CPD)), and estimate geothermal gradient and heat flow required for the evaluation of the geothermal resources of the study area. Results from spectral analysis showed depths to the top of the magnetic source ranging between 0.45 km and 1.90 km; centroid depths of 4 km - 7.87 km and CPD of between 6.15 km and 14.19 km. The CPD were used to estimate geothermal gradients which ranged from 20.3°C/km to 50.0°C/km 2 2 and corresponding heat flow values of 34.9 mW/m to 105 mW/m , utilizing an average thermal conductivity -1 -1 of 2.15 Wm k . Ezzagu (Ogboji), Amanator-Isu, Azuinyaba, Nkalagu, Amagunze, Nta-Nselle, Nnam, Akorfornor environs are situated within regions of high geothermal gradients (&gt;38°C/Km) with models delineated beneath these regions using 3D Magnetic Vector Inversion, having dominant NW-SE and NE-SW trends at shallow and greater depths of &lt;1km to &gt;7 km bsl. Based on VES and 2D imaging models the geothermal system in Alok can be classified as Hot Dry Rock (HDR) type, which may likely have emanated from fracture systems. There is prospect for the development of geothermal energy in the study area.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Airborne Magnetics, Magnetic Vector Inversion, Geothermal Gradient, Heat Flow, Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Energy.</p> I.M. Okiyi S.I. Ibeneme E.Y. Obiora S.O. Onyekuru A.I. Selemo M.O. Olorunfemi Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 195 211 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.17 Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of mixed ligand complexes of Nicotinamide and 2,2′-Bipyridine https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/206659 <p>No Abstract.</p> O.F. Akinyele E.G. Fakola R.C. George L.M. Durosinmi Copyright (c) 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 23 1 213 222 10.4314/ijs.v23i1.18