Ife Journal of Science https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs <p><em>Ife Journal of Science</em> (IJS) aims to publish articles resulting from original research in the broad areas of chemical, biological, mathematical and physical sciences. This extends naturally into frontiers that include the applied areas of Biochemistry and Geology as well as Microbiology and such allied fields as Biotechnology, Genetics, Food Chemistry, Agriculture, Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Shorterlength manuscripts may be accepted as Research notes. Review articles on research topics and books are also welcome.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: </p> <p><a href="https://science.oauife.edu.ng/ife-journal-of-science/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://science.oauife.edu.ng/ife-journal-of-science/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1709967513547000&amp;usg=AOvVaw2obw6sICGfA-9cNhSeRMpI"><em>https://science.oauife.edu.ng/<wbr />ife-journal-of-science/</em></a></p> en-US <p>The Journal retains copyright.</p> ijs@oauife.edu.ng (Dr. T.O. Olomola) ijsb@oauife.edu.ng (Prof. A.O. Oluduro, Editor-in-Chief (Biological Sciences)) Sun, 07 Jan 2024 16:37:35 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Comparative studies on the use of activated snail (<i>Achanita fulica</i>) and periwinkle shells (<i>Typanotonus fuscatu</i>) in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261865 <p>This study seeks to compare the application of activated snail and periwinkle shells in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Snail and periwinkle shells obtained from local markets in Warri, Nigeria, were carbonized, activated and characterized. Batch adsorption experiment was carried out to determine the effect of pH, concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption process. Data obtained were examined using adsorption isotherms. Characterization result showed that activated carbon obtained from periwinkle shells had higher values of pH, pore volume, moisture content and porosity than the values obtained for activated snail shells. The maximum pH obtained for the adsorption of Pb<sup>2+</sup> and Cd<sup>2+</sup> ions using activated &nbsp;periwinkle shell carbon (APSC) and activated snail shell carbon (ASSC) were 7 for Pb<sup>2</sup>+ and 4 – 10 for Cd&nbsp;<sup>2+</sup> . The percentage adsorption of these ions onto APSC were 96.70% Pb<sup>2+</sup> and 100% Cd<sup>2+</sup> while that of ASSC were &nbsp;95.00% Pb<sup>+2</sup> and 68.80% Cd<sup>2+</sup> . The optimum adsorbent dose and contact time for the removal of these ions, using both adsorbents, were 3 g and 90 min, respectively. Results revealed that APSC had better adsorption capacity than ASSC for most parameters studied. Of the four adsorption isotherms models used for this study, &nbsp;Langmuir had the highest regression coefficient (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9852 for APSC and 0.8950 for ASSC). Data for adsorption kinetics exhibited a good&nbsp; compliance with pseudo-second order kinetic model</p> B. A. Nwajei, J. N. Jacob, J. M. Okuo Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261865 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Application of aqueous extracts of <i>Alternanthera brasiliana, Chromolaena odorata</i> and <i>Tridax procumbens</i> plants in remediating lead contaminated soils https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261883 <p>Soil washing is an effective method of removing lead from contaminated soils. However, great limitations abound in the choice of washing solution that is ecologically sustainable for agricultural soils. In this study, applications of plant soluble extracts in remediating of Pb contaminated soils for ecological sustainability were carried out. Batch laboratory experiments were done using aqueous extracts of <em>Alternanthera brasiliana, Chromolaena odorata</em>, <em>Tridax procumbens</em> and water as control at varying soil-pulp-densities (SPD) of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15%, and washing time of 1, 3, 6, 12 h. For contaminated soil, percentage removal efficiency followed the order: <em>Alternanthera brasiliana</em> (38.1±0.28%) &gt; <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> (21.8±0.12%) &gt; <em>Tridax procumbens</em> (21.3±0.18%). The most appropriate ratio for contaminated soil was 3% SPD at 12 h washing time. Removal efficiency was found to be substantially depended on geochemical phase of Pb (exchangeable-4.04%) in contaminated soil and washing solution pH (5.68). Lead removal efficiency was observed to increased proportionally with increasing washing time, but decreased with increasing SPD. Spike soil with high exchangeable Pb-78.9% recorded significant Pb removal of 63.4±0.24% with <em>Alternanthera brasiliana</em>, 47.8±0.22% with <em>Chromolaena odorata</em>, 38.3±0.38% with <em>Tridax procumbens</em> and 52.0±0.26% with water. Analysis of variance at p=0.05 indicated a significant difference in<br>percentage Pb removal efficiency across all the four washing solutions. However, the statistical T-test indicated no significant difference at p=0.05 in percentage Pb removal efficiency between both soils. Also, moderately positive correlations were observed between contaminated and spiked soils for <em>Alternanthera brasiliana</em> (0.676), <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> (0.570) and <em>Tridax procumbens</em> (0.517) while negative correlation observed for water (0.485) which served as the control. The three plant extracts exhibited good potential characteristics as washing solutions for the treatment of Pb contaminated soils. Chemical modifications are recommended to enhance and improve their efficiencies when considering the geochemical phase of Pb in soil.</p> E. U. Etim, A. E. Ayejuone Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261883 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of fungicidal efficacy of free and nano-encapsulated chitosan against <i>Aspergillus flavus</i> isolated from rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i>) seed https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261884 <p>Grains are exposed to contamination by mycotoxins, both in the field and during storage. Aflatoxins produced by <em>Aspergillus</em> species are the most harmful and carcinogenic mycotoxins in grains. Synthetic fungicides are widely used for the control of mycotoxigenic fungi in grains. However, rising public awareness about the toxicological effects of fungicides on human health necessitates the development of non-toxic bio-fungicides. In this connection, reports have shown that chitosan synthesized from shell waste has the potential to serve as an alternative fungicide. Therefore, this study investigated the fungicidal efficacy of free and nano-encapsulated chitosan against aflatoxigenic fungus (<em>Aspergillus flavus</em>). High molecular weight chitosan was purchased, and the in-vitro antifungal efficacy of chitosan against <em>A. flavus</em> was tested using the food poisoning method. Nano-encapsulated chitosan was synthesized using the ionic gelation method, the particle size was determined, and invitro inhibition against<em> A. flavus</em> was investigated. The results revealed that nano-encapsulated chitosan with particle sizes of 525.4 nm, 468.3 nm, and 711.7 nm were obtained. <em>In-vitro</em> mycelial <em>A. flavus</em> growth inhibition of 100% was recorded at 1.5% and 2.0% of free chitosan, while at 0.5% and 1.0% of free chitosan, 45% and 75% inhibition were observed, respectively. Nano-encapsulated chitosan with particle size (nm) of 525.4, 468.3, and 711.7 at 0.50% recorded 61%, 84% and 87% inhibition, respectively. However, at 0.25%, the rate of inhibition was 64%, 78% and 67%, respectively. This study showed that free chitosan and nano-encapsulated chitosan are potential antifungal agents for the control of <em>A. flavus</em>.</p> M. B. Aremu, M.O. Adebola, C. E. Egwim, M. T. Salaudeen Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261884 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of stream order and drainage pattern of flood prone areas of Ebonyi state, Southeastern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261885 <p>This study evaluates stream order and drainage pattern of flood in Ebonyi state, Southeastern Nigeria. The drainage network within Ebonyi State was identified using the Shuttle Rader Topographic Mission (SRTM), the stream order and flood drainage pattern with the aid of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and the Topographic analysis of Spatial Analyst on Hydrology. The data was acquired using Geometric Positioning and the LANDSAT downloaded from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Explorer 2019 and Thematic Mapper (TM) 2009. The result shows that the map of the eastern part of Ebonyi State houses the Cross River basin as a main consequent river draining to the Atlantic Ocean. The drainage gets darker down the slope as more volumes of water move into the traversing drainage channels in their corresponding orders. As flood magnitude increases, the velocity decreases because more water from different river orders or tributaries has been added to the adjusting river channels. It proves that consequent rivers like the Enyim River of Izzi, Iyiokwu River of Abakaliki, Alcor River of Ikwo, Iyere River of Afikpo South, and Esu Umuchimaewuze River of Ohaozara Local Government areas slope down through the adjourning tributaries when the basin is saturated. The map legend shows a thick blue outcome indicating that the flood originates from the Enyim River of Izzi, Iyiokwu River of Abakaliki, Alchor River of Ikwo, Iyere River of Afikpo South, and Esu Umuchimaewueze River of Ohaozara. Therefore, urgent adjustments and construction of drainage systems are needed to accommodate more water volumes. </p> J. O. Nwankwagu, E. O. Okoro, H. I. Agunanna Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261885 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Metamorphic evolution of a metabasite dyke from Ogbagi Akoko area, Southwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261886 <p>Petrography, mineral chemistry and whole rock analyses were conducted on a metabasite dyke hosted by pelitic gneiss (metapelite) in Ogbagi Akoko area with the aim of determining its metamorphic evolution. The dyke is about 40 cm wide and traceable for some meters along strike. It has a discordant contact relationship that is pencil sharp with the host pelitic gneiss and lack any internal fabric. The mineral assemblage includes: garnet +biotite + plagioclase + quartz + orthopyroxene + K-feldspar + ilmenite, with apatite occurring as an accessory mineral. Plagioclase has anorthite content of about 76 (An<sub>76</sub>) suggesting bytownite (An<sub>76</sub> Ab<sub>24</sub> Or<sub>0</sub>) while garnets are poikiloblastic almandine-pyrope rich with XFe of 0.73-0.75. Orthopyroxene has a composition of Wo<sub>0</sub> En<sub>50</sub> Fs<sub>50</sub> suggesting hypersthene that is depleted in Ca. The mineral assemblage, presence of bytownite, absence of amphibole and lack of internal fabric indicate that the rock has undergone metamorphism at a high temperature and moderate pressure without deformation at granulite facies metamorphism. The absence of deformation structure in the dyke is an indication that the intrusion occurred after the cessation of the regional metamorphism but prevalent high temperature that recrystallized the rock. The whole rock composition and some elemental ratios of the dyke indicate that the metamorphism had little or no effect on the bulk chemistry of the rock.</p> E. J. Oziegbe, O. O. Ocan, A. Adetunji, O. Oziegbe Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261886 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Micro-morphological study of three members of genus <i>Plectranthus</i> L. (Lamiaceae) in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261887 <p>Micro-morphological studies of three members of the Genus <em>Plectranthus</em> L. (Lamiaceae) in Nigeria were conducted to investigate the anatomical characteristics of taxonomic importance. The following plant samples were collected from various locations in Southwestern Nigeria, namely <em>Plectranthus aegyptiacus</em> (Forssk.) C. Chr., <em>Plectranthus esculentus</em> N.E.Br. and <em>Plectranthus monostachyus</em> (P. Beauv.) B. J. Pollard. The anatomical study of the lamina epidermis, venation pattern and petiole were performed. The Single Linkage Cluster Analysis (SLCA) and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) were used to analyze the parameters, and photomicrographs were employed to document the observations. Foliar epidermal characteristics such as epidermal cell shape, anticlinal wall pattern, stomata types, trichome types and ergastic substances are essential in delimiting the species. The identification of numerous starch grains delimits<em> P. monostachyus</em> from the other species, a straight anticlinal wall pattern delimits P. esculentus, and the presence of abundant crystal sands delimits P. aegyptiacus. Quantitatively, stomata index (S.I.) and trichome length for both adaxial and abaxial surfaces were significantly different (P≤0.05) among the species. The venation pattern of the studied plant samples also revealed specific characteristics. Irregular vein spacing, eucamptodromous secondary vein category and polygonal areole shape delimit<em> P. esculentus</em> from the other species.</p> A.O. Titus, O.O. Arogundade, I. I. Ogunlowo, O. T. Oladipo Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261887 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Real life applications of mathematical model of Kifilideen trinomial theorem distribution of positive powers of <i>n</i> with mathematical induction of the constituents of its negative powers of <i>n</i> counterpart https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261895 <p>Binomial system is a system of analysis which involves two chances or possible outcomes of event which are the extreme ends of such event. In real life, there exist the mid or intermediary chances or possible outcomes of some events, if not all events, making the possible outcomes of such events to be three. In any such scenario or instance of three possible outcomes, a trinomial system of analysis would be applicable. There is need to develop a model to analysis such scenarios of trinomial system. This research work presents real life applications of mathematical model of Kifilideen trinomial theorem distribution of positive powers of <em>n</em> with mathematical induction of negative powers of n counterpart. A mathematical model of the Kifilideen trinomial theorem distribution was formulated. This research work also develops alternate Kifilideen power combination formula, alternate Kifilideen term formula and alternate Kifilideen position formula for the negative powers of <em>n</em>, which conform but not the same, with the one developed for the positive powers of <em>n</em> counterpart. The formulated mathematical model of the Kifilideen trinomial theorem distribution was utilized to analysis real life events having three possible outcomes. The model invented in this paper can be used to determine the probability of the combination of different <em>n</em> outputs involving three possible categories of outcomes of events. The mathematical induction helps to support and prove that the developed Kifilideen formulas for the constituents of Kifilideen trinomial theorem of negative powers of <em>n</em> are valid and true.</p> K. L. Osanyinpeju Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261895 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An efficient reducing mechanism for energy consumption in data center using hybrid consolidation techniques https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261896 <p>The rise in internet user demand is a major factor in the expansion of infrastructure and the upsurge in energy use in cloud, colocation, and some business data centres. The advent of 5G has compounded the situation, as it substantially gives room for many new types of digital services, resulting in a need for richer consume a lot of energy when no scaling method is applied. Services such as mail, data storage and retrieval and other cloud services also require a lot of high energy consumption which eventually result into carbon(IV) oxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions to the environment. This research therefore, focuses on lowering the energy usage of a data centre with heterogeneous power awareness either in an idle server state or high-performance state using a novel hybridized algorithm called “DyVoFesLoReMu”, comprising Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (Dvfs) and a modified Local Regression Minimum Utilization (LrMu). A real dataset (workload) obtained online from PlanetLab consisting of hosts and Virtual Machines (VM) was simulated on a data center in CloudSim 3.0.3. Tool kit with preset parameters consisting of VM Allocation Policy and VM Selection Policy was used. The tool kit was utilised to create cloud infrastructure and simulate the essential features of a cloud environment. The Cloudsim was installed on Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) 2019 version on Windows 10 operating system. The hybridized algorithm was compared with other five (5) existing energy reducing algorithms and it was found to be more efficient with a range of 41-90% reduction in energy usage from the ten days workload traces and in comparison with the existing algorithms used for the simulation. </p> E.O. Oyekanmi, O.M. Adegoke Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261896 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial degradation of phenol: a review of the current state of knowledge https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261897 <p>Phenol is a toxic and recalcitrant contaminant widely used in various industries, including petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical industries. Bacterial degradation of phenol is a promising method for treating phenol-contaminated wastewater. The biodegradation of phenol by bacteria can effectively remove it from the environment, making it a valuable alternative to traditional chemical treatment methods. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the bacterial biodegradation of phenol, including those in the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical sectors, the metabolic pathways involved in phenol degradation, and the factors that influence the efficiency of phenol biodegradation. This paper also discusses the challenges and limitations of using bacteria for the biodegradation of phenol, including the need for further research to improve the efficiency and sustainability of the process. The outcome of this review demonstrates that bacterial biodegradation is a promising and effective method for treating phenol-contaminated wastewater and provides a foundation for future research to improve the efficiency and continuous use of this process.</p> D.O. Adetitun, R.B. Tomilayo Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261897 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of aquifer parameters from electrical resistivity data and lithologs in Idah area, Northern Anambra basin, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261898 <p>The parameters of the aquifers in Idah area were characterized by integrating resistivity and litholog data. To achieve this, a total of twenty-three (23) Soundings were conducted by applying the 1-D Schlumberger resistivity array and integrating it with borehole lithologs to empirically determine the aquifer parameters in the Idah area, Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria. The results of the analyses indicate that the aquifer zone resistivity ranges from 36.65 – 2065.31 Ωm while the aquifer thickness is between 15.60 m and 66.66 m. Its values of the longitudinal conductance (<em>S</em>), transverse resistance (TR), and hydraulic conductivity (<em>k</em>) are 0.01-1.13 mhos, 1518.90-90265.88 Ωm<sup>2</sup> , and 0.31-13.44 m/day, respectively. The transmissivity (<em>T</em>) values vary from 4.88 to 2 557.78 m /day. T is inversely proportional to TR with a correlation coefficient of 0.28. The result of the reflection coefficient is in the range of -0.79 to 0.66, while that of the fractured contrast is between 0.11 and 5.06. The results suggest that an aquifer system that is predominantly fracture-based is underlying the region. Lithification and diagenesis influence the hydrological properties. The northern–central portions of the map are more suitable for groundwater exploration /exploitation than the southern/eastern ends. </p> A. I. Obasi, G.O. Aigbadon, F. I. Chinyem, C.N. Chukwu, J. B. Ahmed II, S.O. Abubakar, F.D. Attah, E.O. Akudo Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261898 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Geophysical and geotechnical investigations of the site of a collapsed two-storey building in Modomo, Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261899 <p>Geophysical and the geotechnical methods were used to study the site of a collapsed two-storey building in order<br />to determine the sequence and competence of the subsurface layers and determine the cause of the collapse of the building. The geophysical method employed the electrical resistivity method involving one dimensional (1D) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and the two dimensional (2D) imaging techniques. Three VES stations were occupied using Schlumberger electrode configuration. 2D imaging data were acquired along four traverses using dipole-dipole electrode configuration. The geotechnical method involved Cone Penetration Test (CPT). CPT data was acquired at two points with the aid of 2.5 ton Dutch CPT machine. The results showed four subsurface layers based on the 1D VES results and 2D imaging results namely: topsoil, weathered layer, fractured basement rock and fresh basement rock. The topsoil resistivity varied from 116 Ωm to 191 Ωm and has thickness of about 1.5 m. It was classified as moderately competent. The second layer is weathered rock with resistivity varying between 92 Ωm and 327 Ωm and of about 8 m to 13 m thickness. This layer is also moderately competent. The third layer is fractured basement rock. It underlies the weathered rock and have resistivity varying from 391 Ωm to 405 Ωm. Its thickness varied from about 2 m to 20 m. This layer is competent. The fourth layer is the fresh basement rock having resistivity varying from 1365 Ωm to 12348 Ωm and is highly competent. The subsurface materials in the area are competent and can sustain the foundation of the building. Hence, the study concluded that the building collapse did not result from incompetent subsurface materials. Factors other than incompetent subsoil material that is human factors are believed to be responsible. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of geophysical and geotechnical investigations in determining the competence of subsurface materials at engineering sites. </p> O. Afolabi, B. M. Salami, T.M. Olapade, O. A. Alao Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261899 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Detection and characterization of <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> from locally processed fermented foods in Ethiope West, Delta State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261900 <p>Outbreaks linked with foodborne pathogens and associated diseases occur regularly and pose substantial health&nbsp;problems to consumer safety globally. Listeriosis is a leading foodborne disease initiated by the consumption of&nbsp;foods contaminated by <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> (<em>L. monocytogenes</em> ) This study evaluated the presence of <em>. L.&nbsp;</em><em>monocytogenes </em>in various food samples. Locally fermented food samples (n = 80), which included Garri (n = 30),&nbsp;Kunu (n = 25), and Zobo (n = 25), were obtained from five open local markets in Ethiope West, Delta State,&nbsp;Nigeria. Food samples were screened for <em>L. monocytogenes </em>&nbsp;using standard cultural techniques, biochemical tests&nbsp;including the Analytic Profile Index (API) <em>Listeria </em>&nbsp;kit. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial resistance&nbsp;using the disc diffusion method, and breakpoints were interpreted based on the guidelines of the Clinical&nbsp;Laboratory Standard Institute. Gelatinase and lipase activities, including β-haemolysis, were determined using&nbsp;standard methods. <em>L. monocytogenes </em>was identified in 3 (3.8%) and 4 (5%) samples from Zobo and Kunu,&nbsp;respectively. The Garri samples were negative for <em>L. monocytogenes, </em>and only 7 of the 80 (8.8%) samples were&nbsp;positive for <em>L. monocytogenes. </em>&nbsp;One positive sample each was obtained in the Oghara and Ogharefe markets, two&nbsp;from the Ugbenu market, and three from the Mosogar market. No sample was positive <em>L. monocytogenes.&nbsp;</em>for in the Oghareki market. All the isolates were penicillin-resistant but susceptible to levofloxacin and tetracycline,&nbsp;whereas five were resistant to clindamycin. All isolates were resistant to at least two classes of antibiotics, and the&nbsp;multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was ≥ 0.22. Gelatinase activity was observed in one isolate, β-haemolytic activity in four isolates, and lipase activity in five isolates. This study revealed the importance of&nbsp;proper hygiene practices in food production and continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance and virulence&nbsp;determinants in food. There is a need to adhere to standard hygiene measures in food processing environments.&nbsp;</p> A. Beshiru , K.E. Uwhuba Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261900 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of near-surface turbulent fluxes at a tropical location: an evaluation of flux-profile technique https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261931 <p>An experimental site at Obafemi Awolowo University's Teaching and Research Farm, in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was used to conduct multilevel measurements of meteorological parameters, and turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) between June 1 and July 31, 2016. The framework provided by Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) for estimating the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat through existing empirical flux-profile relationships was employed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the flux-profile technique based on direct measurements of turbulent fluxes obtained from an eddy covariance (EC) system set up at the same location. The results showed that the diurnal patterns of both sensible and latent heat fluxes estimated from flux-profile technique compared relatively well with the direct measurements of the EC system. Nighttime estimations under stably stratified conditions of the atmosphere strongly correlated (R = 0.98) with the directly measured values. However, during the daytime convective conditions, there were some consistent discrepancies in the performance of the flux-profile technique with errors in some of the estimated fluxes well within the uncertainty range of the EC measurements. For sensible heat flux estimates; the coefficient of determination, R<sup>2</sup> (0.71), the mean biased error, MBE (15.1 W/m<sup>2</sup>) and the percentage error determined for the period averaged values of the daytime estimates indicated that the sensible heat flux was only overestimated by up to 20%. On the other hand, a negative MBE 2 2 (-28.2 W/m<sup>2</sup>), weak coefficient of determination, R<sup>2</sup>(0.58)and negative percentage error obtained for the period averaged values of the latent heat flux indicated there is an underestimation of up to 45%. It can be concluded the flux-profile relationships can be employed within certain limits of confidence interval at tropical locations especially for the estimation of sensible heat flux.</p> O.A. Babatunde, A.P. Olufemi, L. A. Sunmonu, O.E. Abiye, O.R. Omokungbe, A. B. Toyeje, O. E. Obisesan Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261931 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of abattoir wastewater on the growth of <i>Solanum lycopersicum</i> L. (tomato) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261932 <p>With the growing necessity to use wastewater for irrigation due to water scarcity, farmers face the challenge of using wastewater containing non-profiled nutrients that may be detrimental to crop productivity. The study investigated the effects of water from abattoirs on tomato plant growth and development. Abattoir wastewater (AWW) was obtained from Surulere and Agege abattoirs in Lagos State. The experimental design implemented a randomized complete design (RCD) with three replications. Tomato plants were grown in experimental pots and treated with different amounts of AWW: Tap water (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. Data on plant height, branch and leaf numbers, fruit yield, stem girth, and root length, were collected at two-week intervals for five months. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the means were separated using the Tukey HSD test at a threshold of 5% (P&lt;0.05). The study revealed that AWW significantly increased tomato growth characteristics and fruit yield at 100% AWW concentration. Thus, AWW may be an alternative source of organic nutrients for vegetable crop irrigation and could assist farmers with the escalating issues of freshwater scarcity and drought challenges worldwide.&nbsp;</p> A.O. Faronbi, C.C. Ndiribe Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261932 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activities and computational studies of some carbamoyl phosphonates https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261934 <p>Four carbamoyl phosphonates, namely diethyl <em>p</em>-tolylsulphonyl carbamoyl phosphonate (NA), dimethyl <em>p-</em>tolylsulphonyl carbamoyl phosphonate (NC), dimethyl <em>p-</em>tolyl carbamoyl phosphonate (ND) and dimethyl<em> p-</em>tolylsulphonylmethane carbamoyl phosphonate (NE) were synthesized and characterized using FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H- and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR. The products were screened <em>in vitro</em> for their growth-inhibitory activity against nine Gram-positive strains, three Gram-negative bacteria strains, and a fungus isolate. Some compounds exhibited broad-spectrum (<em>in vitro</em>) activity against the bacterial strains, and all showed activity against the only fungus used. It was observed that NC showed the highest overall activity against the microorganisms. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations conducted at ωB97XD/def2-TZVP level of theory corroborated the structural conformations of the molecules deduced from spectroscopic analyses. Predicted reactivity indices of the compounds also correlate fairly with the observed biological activities.</p> W.O. Doherty, L.O. Olasunkanmi, O. A. Ogunkunle, D. A. Akinpelu, I. A. O. Ojo Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261934 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, characterization and <i>In-silico</i> study of anti-cancer potential of Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes of (E)-2- benzylidenehydrazinecarboxamide https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/263374 <p>In this study, (<em>E</em>)-2-benzylidenehydrazinecarboxamide coordination compounds and mixed ligand metal complexes with oxalic acid or 1,2-diaminocyclohexane were synthesized. Their potential cytotoxic effects and interactions with B-DNA evaluated. This was with a view to demonstrate their potential as anticancer agents for breast cancer. (<em>E</em>)-2-Benzylidenehydrazinecarboxamide (benzaldehyde semicarbazone) coordination compounds of Cu(II) and Ni(II) and mixed ligand metal complexes with oxalic acid and 1,2- diaminocyclohexane were synthesized. The resultant complexes were characterized by physicochemical techniques including melting point measurement, percent metal analysis, solubility, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Electronic and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, were performed to further lucidate the structures of the complexes. The synthesized compounds were examined for their cytotoxic effects and DNA interactions with B-DNA. The results obtained showed that all the ligands used were bidentate ligands. They bound to the metal ions through oxygen and nitrogen atoms. All synthesized compounds showed good cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp nauplii except for the (E)-2-benzylidenehydrazinecarboxamide copper(II) complex. All of the metal complexes, with the exception of the (<em>E</em>)-2- enzylidenehydrazinecarboxamide coordination copper complex, bound to DNA with moderate binding energies. They favoured conventional hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction mostly. The copper complex with 1,2-diaminocyclohexane had the most interaction and a good binding effect to the DNA and better than oxaliplatin, the standard used. This therefore indicated the potential of these compounds as probable chemotherapeutic agents against breast cancer cells.</p> T. O Aiyelabola, O. A. Fadare, T. J. Ogundoro Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/263374 Sun, 03 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, characterisation and antibacterial study of copper(ii) complexes of new benzylacetone-benzoylhydrazone and its <i>para</i>-nitro and <i>para</i>-hydroxy substituted analogues https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261936 <p>Three new ligands <em>viz</em>, benzylacetone-enzoylhydrazone [babh (L<sup>1</sup>)], <em>para</em>-hydroxy-benzylacetone-<br>benzoylhydrazone [<em>p-</em>OH-babh (<em>L<sup>2</sup></em> )] and <em>para</em>-nitrobenzylacetone-benzoylhydrazone [<em>p</em>-NO<sub>2</sub> -babh (<em>L</em><sup>3</sup> )], were synthesised by condensation of hydrazides with benzylacetone. The ligands were each reacted with copper(II) salts (chloride, nitrate, acetate and sulphate) to form complexes with the general formulae ML<sub>2</sub>X<sub>2</sub> (X = Cl , NO<sub>3</sub> , AcO<sup>-</sup> and SO<sub>4</sub> ). The compounds were characterised using <sup>1</sup>H NMR, Infrared and UV-Visible spectroscopy, as 4 well as CHN elemental analyser and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Antibacterial activity of the ligands and synthesised complexes were investigated using the agar diffusion method against two Gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> NCTC 6571 and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> ATCC 11778) and three Gram- negative (E<em>scherichia coli</em> ATCC 25922, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 10145, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> ATCC 13048) bacterial strains. However, the observed antimicrobial strength of the synthesized compounds was rather low.</p> T. A. Ajayeoba, A.T. Famojuro, E. O. Akinkunmi, O. Olasehinde, A. O. Ayeni, O. F. Akinyele, J.A.O. Woods Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/261936 Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000