Ife Journal of Science https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs <p><span><em>Ife Journal of Science</em> (IJS) aims to publish articles resulting from original research in the broad areas of chemical, biological, mathematical and physical sciences. This extends naturally into frontiers that include the applied areas of Biochemistry and Geology as well as Microbiology and such allied fields as Biotechnology, Genetics, Food Chemistry, Agriculture, Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Shorterlength manuscripts may be accepted as Research notes. Review articles on research topics and books are also welcome.</span></p><p><span>Other websites associated with this journal: </span></p><p>IJS website: <a title="www.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" href="http://www.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" target="_blank">www.oauife.edu.ng/ijs</a><br />Also accessible through: <a title="http://scholar.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" href="http://scholar.oauife.edu.ng/ijs" target="_blank">http://scholar.oauife.edu.ng/ijs</a></p> en-US The Journal retains copyright. aogunfow@oauife.edu.ng (Prof. A. O. Ogunfowokan) olusanjo2002@yahoo.co.uk (Dr. I.O. Adewale (Editor-in-Chief: Biological Sciences)) Tue, 23 Nov 2021 06:36:04 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effects of application of copper-based fungicides in cocoa plantations on the abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates in adjacent rivers in Southwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217421 <p>This study investigated the relationship between the levels of fungicide pollution and the abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in three river systems: Aponmu, Oruwo, and Owena in south-western Nigeria, which are in close proximity to cocoa plantations. For each river, three sites were selected for the collection of water and sediment samples from April to July, 2018. Prior to sample collection, the physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, total dissolved solutes, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) were determined. Also, aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected, and were identified to generic level, where possible. The levels of copper and sulphate in the samples were determined following standard procedures. The range of mean values for the physicochemical parameters were: 0.07-0.20 mS/cm, 60.00 – 154.00 ppm, 24.60 – 28.13 °C, 6.97 – 7.43, and 0.87 – 2.87 mg/L for electrical conductivity, total dissolved solutes, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen respectively. The range of mean values for copper and sulphate in sediment samples were 30.58 – 56.63 mg/Kg and 787.12 – 978.33 mg/Kg respectively while those for the water samples were 2.86 – 6.93 mg/L and 476.6 – 685.58 mg/L respectively. A total of nineteen (19) macroinvertebrate genera comprising Insecta (14), Gastropoda (3), Crustacea (1), and Bivalvia (1) were recorded. Taxa richness and species diversity were higher in river Owena in comparison to rivers Aponmu and Oruwo. The high abundance of the taxa: Potamididae, Gerridae, Notonectidae, Libellulidae, and Platycnemididae in the sampled rivers notwithstanding the pollution levels is an indication that these taxa are capable of thriving in polluted aquatic systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aquatic pollution; Copper-based fungicides; Black pod disease; Macroinvertebrates; Diversityindices</p> C. O. Adedire, J. A. Adeyemi, G. O. Owokoniran, B. W. Adu, K. D. Ileke Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217421 Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The distribution of extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase genes in Fomites, healthcare workers, and patients from two hospitals in Lagos state, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217423 <p>Antibiotics resistance is a rapidly emerging issue through the misuse of antibiotics to treat human and animalrelated infections. The use of beta-lactams has increased considerably since its discovery so also resistant genes leading to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) mediated by the presence of bla<sub>CTX-M</sub> , bla<sub>TEM</sub> and bla<sub>SHV</sub> genes present in most Gram-negative bacteria. This study aimed to detect the widespread distribution of ESBL genes from fomites, healthcare workers, and patients suffering from urinary tract infection in two hospitals in&nbsp; Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of 150 swab samples were collected from fomites, health care workers, and cathetersof patients suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI). Antibiotics susceptibility test was performed by Kirby- Bauer technique according to CLSI guidelines. Organisms that tested positive phenotypically for ESBL were subjected to PCR for molecular analysis. ESBL prevalence rate of 21.8% and a carbapenemase-resistance rate of 16.7% were recorded. The ESBL producing isolates showed the highest resistance to ceftriaxone (82.4%) and the least resistance to tigecycline (5.9%). The existence of bla<sub>CTX-M</sub> and bla<sub>TEM</sub> was detected in 76.5% and 17.6% of the isolates respectively, while bla encoding gene was not detected in this study. The distribution of bla<sub>SHV</sub> genes detected in this study is of great concern which necessitates strict control measures in the usage of antibiotics especially the third-generation cephalosporin. In summary, the presence and distribution of ESBL encoding genes within two hospitals in Lagos were tested and the highest occurrence was recorded in bla<sub>CTX-M</sub> gene&nbsp; reducing and limiting the available treatment option for infections.</p> T. O. Egwuatu, O. D. Ishola, O. E. Oladele Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217423 Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Tamarind extract pretreatment: Valorization of sugarcane bagasse for cellulase production by <i>Aspergillus flavus</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217433 <p>Effective pretreatment is crucial for cellulase production from sugarcane bagasse. Pretreatment with tamarind extract could reduce the hazardous effect associated with chemical pretreatment. The present work investigated tamarind (<em>Tamarindus indica</em>) extract in combination with H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and thermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for cellulase production by<em> Aspergillus flavus.</em> The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with tamarind extract pH 2 and pH 4, followed by 1% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and thermal treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The pretreatment slurry was analysed for reducing sugar while solid bagasse was analysed for weight loss. <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> grew on sugarcane bagasse under solid state fermentation and the Carboxy Methyl Cellulase (CMCase) and Filter Paper Assay (FPA) activities were compared on the various pretreatments. The pretreatments changed the visible morphology of the sugarcane bagasse observed by the swelling, fibrous appearance and colour change. Pretreatment slurry yielded highest soluble reducing sugar at 60.01 mg/ml in tamarind extract (pH 4/1% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> ) and highest weight&nbsp; loss of solids at 73.70% in tamarind extract (pH 2/1% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> /thermal 121°C). <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> performed better on tamarind extract (pH 2/1% H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> ) by producing optimal CMCase and FPA activities at 0.100 U/ml and 0.409 U/ml respectively after 3 days of fermentation. Cellulase was maximally active at temperature of 50 °C. The tamarind extract pretreatment successfully proved to be an alternative organo-chemical pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse as evidenced by the physical properties, soluble reducing sugars and cellulase activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>, Cellulase, Pretreatment, Sugarcane bagasse, Tamarind extract</p> M. O. Kazeem, K. A. Ajijolakewu, A.M. Ahmed El - Imam, R. B. Salau Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217433 Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and some surface characterization of tin Sulphide (SnS) thin film by two-electrode cell arrangement for photo absorption https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217468 <p>This study presented deposition of tin sulphide (SnS) thin film using a two-electrode electrochemical cell arrangement. The bath electrolyte comprised tin sulphate (SnSO<sub>4</sub> ), hydrated sodium thiosulphate (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>∙5H<sub>2</sub>O) and sulphuric acid (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> ). The acid was used to adjust the pH of the bath. The deposited film was characterised using Surface Profilometer, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Uv-Visible Spectrophotometer and four point probe technique. Surface profiling revealed that the film is continuous with thickness of about 60 nm. The XRD result showed that the film has orthorhombic crystal structure. Film's crystallite size was estimated as 0.61 nm and interplanar spacing as 0.29 nm. The Uv-visible Spectrophotometer result reveals that, the film has good absorbance but poor reflectance and transmittance in the visible light region. The film has direct allowed transition with energy band gap of 1.69 eV. Values of surface resistivity and conductivity were deduced from data obtained from Four-point probe studies as 5.12 x 10<sup>-4</sup>Ω-cm and 1.96 x 10<sup>3</sup>Ω<sup>-1</sup>cm<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The I-V characteristics curve of ITO/SnS/Ag structure is linear indicating an Ohmic contact between the substrate electrode and the deposited layer. It can therefore be suggested that the film can allow pathway for photoabsorption and also aid charge transfer in photovoltaic process.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> tin sulphide, orthorhombic, electrochemical deposition, characterization, photovoltaic and surface resistivity.</p> A. R. Lasisi, A. B. Alabi, B. A. Taleatu, O. A. Babalola Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217468 Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and molecular assessment of mushroom (<i>Lentinus Squarrosulus</i>) (mont.) Singer https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217469 <p><em>Lentinus squarrosulus</em> is a popular mushroom in Nigeria used for traditional medicine apart from food. The identification of those high-quality fungal species is not only necessary but has great economic significance as it will allow product distributors to verify the material they are selling. Hence, this study investigated the morphological and molecular relationship among<em> L. squarrosulus</em> samples from different locations in Ibadan. Ten samples of <em>L. squarrosulus</em> were collected from nine different natural habitats in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, from which pure cultures were prepared. Isolation of DNA was done from fruiting bodies of fresh samples evaluated. Ten primers were designed from ITS sequences of the Family Agariceae and used for the study. The ten mushrooms evaluated in the study showed diverse morphological features such as colour of cap and pileus, size of stipe and pileus. A total of 50 amplicons were generated of which 31 bands (62%) were polymorphic. The RAPD variety-specific products were generated in some of the genotypes evaluated which can serve as unique identifiers. The study showed mean values for marker gene diversity of 0.27, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of 0.25 and 63.81% polymorphism. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed two clustered groups. Number and types of samples in each group were not the same in both studies. The presence of unique band pattern among sampled fungi evaluated showed the discriminating power of the primer Ast-F in the study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Polymorphism, DNA, RAPD, Fungi, Gene diversity characterization</p> C. O. Adenipekun, L. A. Ogunkanmi , O. Onibonoje Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217469 Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Soil quality and metal distribution around stone quarries within Abeokuta, Southwest, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217470 <p>Quarrying activities are explored to extract a variety of materials deposited underneath the earth surface. These activities however can potentially impact negatively on soil quality and cause elemental pollution. This study assessed soil quality and distribution of metals in soils around four quarrying sites (PAPA, S&amp;D, TCity and Mile 8) within Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Thirty six topsoil samples were collected at distances from quarry gates in September 2019 and analyzed using standard methods. Soil quality and metal concentrations were compared with reference and standards and the degrees of soil contamination assessed using relevant indices. Soil quality reduced with distance from the quarry gates. Similarly, metal concentrations had strong and significant (P=0.05) negative relationships with distance and were higher in soil samples compared to the reference. Moderate contaminations for all metals were observed in soils collected close to the quarry gates soils from the results of&nbsp;the contamination factor index (C<sub>f)</sub>.&nbsp; However, the results of ecological risk index (E<sup>i</sup>) showed that the metal&nbsp; loads in soils currently do not pose any ecological risk.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Quarry, Soil quality, Metal distribution, Soil contamination, Potential ecological risk</p> K.A. Olatunde, T. Towolawi, I. Kolawole, N. Aiyelabola, O. Michael, E. Warrie, O. Oludiran, I. Awomade Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217470 Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bioaccumulation of auto-mechanic wastes in the tissues of <i>Pellonula Afzeliusi</i> (Johnels, 1954) collected from Agba stream Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217472 <p>Hydrocarbons and heavy metals (HM) present in automobile wastes get into water bodies close to automobile mechanic villages. They deteriorate the physico-chemical qualities of such water bodies and exert toxic effects on fish and other aquatic fauna. They also pose risks to humans that consume fish from streams near such automechanic villages. There is paucity of information on the HM contents of Agba stream, Ilorin and no information on the bioaccumulation of HM in the tissues of<em> Pellonula afzeliusi</em> is currently available. The purpose of this study was to assess the physico-chemical qualities of water and bioaccumulation of HM in the tissues of <em>Pellonula afzeliusi</em> fish collected from Agba stream, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Water and samples of<em> Pellonula afzeliusi</em> were collected from the upstream (station A), midstream (station B) of Agba stream located close to an auto-mechanic village and Oyun dam (control site, station C) located within the University of Ilorin. Standard methods were used to analyse oil and grease (OG), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and HM in water samples. The concentrations of TPH and HM were analysed in the skin, bone, muscle, gills, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney of the fish. The order of water HM concentrations indicated Zn &gt; Cd &gt; Ba&gt; Fe &gt; Pb at station A; Cd &gt; Zn &gt; Fe &gt; Ba &gt; Pb at station B, and Zn &gt; Ba &gt; Pb &gt; Fe &gt;Cd at station C. TPH and HM bioaccumulated in the tissues of fish while lead was not detected in all tissues from station C. Bioaccumulation factor varied with the highest values&nbsp; t station C. The result of this study indicated heavy pollution burden in station B with lower pollution burden in station C (the control site). These call for attention of government in ensuring ecological restoration and prevention of further discharge of automobile wastes into the stream.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Automobile wastes, Heavy metals, Hydrocarbons, Bioaccumulation, Pellonula afzeliusi</p> O. A. Adeyemi-Ale, S. O. Oladipo, S. I. Abdulkareem Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217472 Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Metagenomic tracking of microbial consortia of cassava flakes (<i>garri</i>) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217523 <p>The affirmation of several cross-sectional studies on the vulnerability of cassava flakes commonly called '<em>garri</em>' to microbial attack has long been documented. However, longitudinal data on metagenomic tracking of microbial consortia of this important staple food are scarce. Hence, this study was aimed at tracking the microbial consortia of <em>garri.</em> A total of eight samples (four each from both Nigeria and Republic of Benin markets) were randomly collected aseptically using pre-sterilized aluminum pans and processed through a metagenomic approach, while both the chemical and proximate components of <em>garri</em> were assessed following standard techniques. The analysis of the taxonomic consortia of <em>garri</em> reveals the predomination of bacteria (99.82 and 99.81% for samples from Nigeria and Republic of Benin, respectively) while the remaining sequences matched with the Archae (0.07%), fungi (0.09%) and protozoa (0.09%). A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified at the phylum level (approximately 84.10 and 86.2% for Nigerian and Beninese samples, respectively). The reads of cassava flakes metagenome of both Nigeria and Republic of Benin exhibited analogous level of average GC content with sequence count of between 187773-213444 for samples from Nigeria and 157784-198763 for samples from Republic of Benin. The functional characteristics of the inhabiting metagenomes were found containing the genes encoding for adhesins, bacteriocins, resistance to antibiotics, toxic chemicals as well as toxins and superantigens. Both the chemical and the proximate compositions of the examined garri samples, though exhibited significant disparity, but without any apparent variation in the patterns of metagenomic data. Our findings however revealed bacteria as the major contaminants of these cassava food products.</p> <p><strong>Keywords;</strong> Metagenomics, Microorganisms, Cassava flakes (<em>garri</em>), Proximate composition</p> B.T. Thomas, M.O. Efuntoye, R.M. Kolawole, O.D. Popoola, A.O. Tajudeen Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217523 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical and microbial properties of kiln-smoked catfish in selected locations in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217524 <p>The use of smoking kiln for drying catfish is on the increase in Nigeria due to its effectiveness in reducing moisture and contamination with toxic compounds during smoking. Chemical properties of kiln-smoked catfish in selected locations in Ilorin metropolis were determined in this study. Kiln-smoked catfish were obtained from four major locations (Oyun, Asa-Dam, Tanke and Agbo-Oba) in Ilorin, Nigeria. The samples were subjected to chemical and polycyclic hydrocarbon content analyses. Dried catfish from all the locations had low moisture and crude fibre contents. There were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) in the crude fibre contents of the kiln-smoked catfish. Protein contents ranging from 53.72-56.49% were obtained for the kilnsmoked catfish samples. Fat contents ranged from 9.92-11.77% while the carbohydrate contents ranged from 19.02-23.59%. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in the samples with no traces of lead and cadmium. Agbo-Oba samples contained the highest pyrene (2983.215 ng/ml) and total polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAHs) (3349.090 ng/ml). Data on steroid fractions indicated that 17b-estradiol was significantly greater in quantity than those recorded from other steroid fractions. Microbial analyses of the samples revealed the presence of the following pathogenic organisms: Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio spp, Aspergillus niger, penicilium spp, Trichoderma spp</em> which are harmful to man. The use of smoking kiln method improved the nutrients and reduced PAHs in catfish.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Smoking kiln, Catfish, Chemical properties, Polycyclic hydrocarbon, Mineral elements</p> O. A. Abiodun, A. Ojo, R. M. O. Kayode, V. E. Edem, M. O. Shittu, Z. A. Opaleye, T. N. Olayinka Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217524 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Oral administration of <i>Weissella</i> and <i>Pediococcus sp</i> alleviates formalin induced inflammation in rats by Cytokine Modulation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217525 <p>This study was designed to study the cytokine modulatory activity of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, <em>Weisella cibaria</em> II-1-59, <em>Weisella confusa</em> JMC 1093, and <em>Pediococcus pentosaceus</em> DSM20336 isolated from a Nigerian locally fermented food condiment; “iru” using paw oedema acute inflammatory model induced with 1% formalin in Wistar rats. Rats were distributed into six groups (A-F). Rats in Groups A were neither administered formalin nor treated with LAB, while Group B received formalin injection only. Rats in Groups C, D, and E were&nbsp; administered formalin and were treated orally with 2 × 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/ml of<em> Weisella cibaria</em> II-1-59, <em>Weisella confusa</em> JMC 1093, and<em> Pediococcus pentosaceus</em> DSM20336 respectively, while Group F received diclofenac sodium treatment following administration of formalin. The dose of LAB strain used for the oral treatment was 2 × 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/ml for all the groups while the dose of diclofenac sodium used was 150 mg/kg body weight of the rats. Paw thickness (mm) was checked at t = 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 72, 168 and 336 h. Cytokine assay for C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin (IL-10) and Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) was performed on serum samples of the rats using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oral administration of <em>W. cibaria</em> II-1-59 showed the best significant decrease in the paw thickness of the rats, which was followed by <em>P. pentosaceus</em> DSM20336 and <em>W. confusa</em> JMC 1093 respectively, and was shown to be statistically significant at P&lt;0.05. There was also a significant decrease (below standard 2000 pg/ml) in the secretion of pro-inflammatory biomarker (CRP) in all LAB treated groups at 1 hour, while there was an increase in the serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF- β in Groups C-E rats which was maximally increased in<em> W. confusa</em> JMC 1093 treated rats. This study suggests that <em>W. cibaria</em> II-1-59, W. confusa JMC 1093 and <em>P. pentosaceu</em>s DSM20336 possess anti-inflammatory potentials.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Inflammation, Cytokines, <em>Weisella</em>, Formalin, Oedema,<em> Pediococcus</em></p> B. O. Oladejo, H. M. Oluwasola Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217525 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical characteristics and green microalgae composition of selected rivers in Ogun State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217593 <p>The river system is the most complex of the freshwater bodies in the world and is prone to pollution especially from anthropogenic activities and the quality of water, as partially determined by physicochemical properties, is very crucial for primary productivity in the aquatic environment. This study determined the physicochemical characteristics and green microalgae of water collected from Majopa, Ogunpa and Uren rivers in Ogun State, Nigeria. Surface water samples were collected from three different rivers using direct collection method into the labelled bottles for physicochemical characteristics determination, culturing and ecological studies. Water samples for ecological studies were fixed in 4% unbuffered formalin while sample for culturing were not fixed but growth stimulated using Bold Basal Medium (BBM) and Blue- Green Medium (BG-11). The physicochemical parameters varied widely with the profile of water sample from Ogunpa River being the most favourable for widest diversity of green microalgae of all three. The pH of the water samples were slightly acidic ranging between 6.3 and 6.5 for the rivers, while the lower dissolved oxygen (2.61-3.01 mg/L) recorded pointed to a stressed environment which probably accounted for lower number of microalgae taxa observed, especially in Majopa River. The ecological studies showed the presence of ten taxa from the division Chlorophyta with nine taxa from Ogunpa River and <em>Scenedesmus</em> sp. being dominant genus across the rivers. The microalgae diversity of the river water was Ogunpa River˃Uren River˃Majopa River. BBM supported growth of the microalgae much better. The physicochemical properties portrayed Majopa and Ogunpa River water as unfit for drinking, while that of Uren River is relatively fit for drinking. It is highly recommended that the microalgae reported therein be further characterised for various possible economic benefits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Growth, Microalgae, Nutrient, Ogun State, River, WaterDepth, Geothermal Energy</p> O. S. Shokunbi, A. A. Badaru, T. A. Adesalu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217593 Fri, 19 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of methanol extract of <i>Anacardium occidentale</i> stem bark on agonist-induced contraction in rat uterine muscle https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217715 <p><em>Anacardium occidentale</em> (Ao) is widely used in ethnomedicine and the effect on contractility of the gut and heart muscles of laboratory rodents have been established however, its effect on the contractility of uterine muscle has been rarely researched. The present study investigated the effect of stem bark methanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale (AoME) on Isolated Rat Uterus Strips (IRUS). The <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> methanol extract (AoME) was obtained by solvent extraction. The IRUS were suspended in a bath containing 15 ml of De Jalon's solution through a silk connected to a force transducer. A tension of 1.0 g was applied. The strips were allowed to equilibrate for a period of 60–90 min before the commencement of the experiment. The extract (0.025- 0.3mg/ml) added cumulatively did not modify the normal tonus in most of the IRUS used except in one where it feebly contracted it. However, the contractile responses induced by acetylcholine (10<sup>-9</sup> -10<sup>-5</sup> M) and oxytocin (10<sup>-9</sup> -10<sup>-5</sup> M) on the IRUS were almost completely blocked by pre-incubated AoME at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml. Stem bark methanol extract of<em> Anacardium occidentale</em> shifted the log concentration curve of both agonists to the right. The present results report the antagonistic effects of stem bark methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale on oxytocin and acetylcholine-induced contraction in rat uterus strips.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Anacardium occidentale,</em> Oxytocin, Acetylcholine, Uterus, Smooth muscle</p> B. O. Omolaso Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217715 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Biosynthesis and characterizations of extracellular enzymes of microbial isolates from dairy industrial effluent https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217722 <p>Diary effluents are environmental pollutant which could serve as source of substrate for microbial enzymes' synthesis. This research investigated the isolation and screening of bacteria and fungi with potential extracellular proteolytic and amylolytic properties from dairy effluents, and their characteristics for maximum enzyme production. Effluent from a dairy industry located in Ibadan, Nigeria, was collected for isolation and screening of microbial species for enzymatic activities. The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Soluble Solid (TTS), and pH of the effluent were determined using standard procedures. The potential isolates were characterized morphologically and by molecular techniques. Proteolytic and amylolytic activities of isolates were investigated on skimmed milk starch agar respectively and optimized with varying pH (6.0 - 9.0), temperature (27 - 60 °C) and incubation period (12 - 72 h). Data were analyzed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. Biological Oxygen Demand, Total Soluble Solid and pH of the effluent were 14.67 mg/L, 13.33% and 7.58 respectively. Eleven isolates were positive for either protease or amylase synthesis, but only two showed both proteolytic and amylolytic activities and were molecularly characterized as <em>Bacillus stratosphericus</em> CM2HG6 and<em> Aspergillus welwitschiae</em>. Optimization showed that enzyme production by <em>B. stratosphericus</em> CM2HG6 was highest at 35 °C, pH 7.0 for 48 h, and that of <em>A. welwitschiae</em> achieved optimum production at 37 °C, pH 8.0 for 72 h. Under optimized conditions,<em> Bacillus stratosphericus</em> CM2HG6 was the highest amylase and protease producer (24.4 and 30.74 U/ml respectively), while<em> A. welwitschiae</em> was the lowest producer (12.58 and 18.8 U/ml respectively). The study successfully showed that these industrially-important enzymes can be produced by microbial strains isolated from dairy effluent, and production can be further optimized</p> M. B. Osho, C. A. K Awe-Mathias, I. B. Onajobi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217722 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 In-vitro antifungal activity of leaf, stem bark and root extracts of <i>Irvingia gabonensis</i> against fungi associated with its seed deterioration https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217725 <p><em>Irvingia gabonensis</em> (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill seeds are often contaminated in storage by postharvest spoilage fungi. This study investigated the nutritional contents of the seeds, phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity of different parts of the plant as well as their antifungal effects against fungi isolated from the deteriorated seeds. Proximate, mineral and phytochemical analyses were carried out using standard laboratory techniques. The antioxidant activity was against DPPH radicals. Ethanol extracts (100 and 200 mg/ml) of the various parts were screened against the isolates using pour plate method in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates. The plates were examined for growth daily for 10 days. Data were statistically analysed. The healthy seeds contained higher protein (13.73%), fat (58.73%) and fibre (2.50%), whereas, higher content of moisture (10.17%) and carbohydrate (15.47%) were observed in the spoilt seeds. The leaf had highest contents of alkaloids (1228.3 mg/100 g), flavonoids (1345.9 mg/100 g), tannins (1345.9 mg/100 g), saponins (578.3 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (2348.3 μg/100 g). The antioxidant activity of the leaf (50.30%) was the highest. Fungi isolated from the deteriorated seeds were<em> Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus </em>and<em> Curvilaria lunata.</em> The leaf was most effective against<em> A. niger, A. flavus</em> and <em>C. lunata</em> whereas the stem bark extract was most effective against <em>A. fumigatus.</em> The F-values were significant for model, treatment, concentration and number of days for the leaf and root. This study confirmed the antifungal activity of extracts of various parts of the plant against isolates implicated in the deterioration of its seeds. The extracts could be used as preservative to enhance the shelf-life and nutritional quality of the seeds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Irvingia gabonensis,</em> Spoilage of seeds, Antifungal activity, Free radical scavengers, Preservatives</p> I. T. Gbadamosi, O. T. Obanubi, A. A. Sobowale Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217725 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of magnesium on some mechanical properties of 1200 Aluminium alloy https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217729 <p>This paper investigated the effect of magnesium as a dispersion strengthening material on some mechanical properties of 1200-Aluminium (Al-Fe-Si) alloy, a typical commercial aluminium alloy used in the production of household utensils. 1200-Aluminium (Al-Fe-Si) alloy containing varying percentages of the dispersion hardening material (i.e. Magnesium) were produced and mechanical tests namely; hardness, tensile strength and impact strength were carried out. Also, the microstructures of the cast materials were studied. The results showed that increase in magnesium content, as dispersion hardening material improved the hardness, tensile strength and caused a slight decrease in impact strength of the 1200-Aluminium alloy. It is inferred from this work that using magnesium as a dispersion hardening material brings about corresponding improvement in some mechanical properties of 1200-Aluminium (Al-Fe-Si) alloy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Magnesium, Aluminium alloy, dispersion strengthened, reinforced alloy, crystallographic formation Depth, Geothermal Energy</p> M. D. Shittu, A. E. Olaniyi, A. A. Daniyan, D. A Isadare, K. M. Oluwasegun, S. A. Ibitoye Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217729 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial activity of <i>Sida acuta, Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus muellerianus</i> against microorganisms implicated in urinary tract infections https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217730 <p>Increasing level of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most significant public health challenges globally. Hence, the search for alternatives from medicinal plants. This study investigated the efficacy of <em>Phyllanthus amarus</em> (PA), <em>Phyllanthus muellerianus</em> (PM) and <em>Sida acuta</em> (SA) leaf extracts on microorganisms implicated in UTI. Mid-stream urine samples collected from 100 patients clinically diagnosed with UTI were cultured. The microorganisms isolated were identified using their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Methanol leaf extracts of the three plants were obtained by cold maceration in 60% methanol. Crude extract of PM was thereafter purified by solvent partitioning. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion. Antimicrobial effects of the extracts and oil was ascertained using agar well diffusion. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) were also determined. Rate of kill and mechanism of action of the purified extract of PM on isolates were investigated. Cytotoxicity of plant extracts were assayed on brine shrimps while synergism of the purified extract with ciprofloxacin was ascertained using overlay inoculum susceptibility disc method. Antioxidant and phytochemical analyses of the extracts were conducted using standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids. Antioxidant assay also indicated SA had the highest total flavonoids and phenol content of 339.86 mgQUE/g and 27.63 mgGAE/g. Microorganisms isolated include: <em>Escherichia coli</em> (24%), <em>Proteus mirabilis</em> (24%), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (19%), <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (13%), <em>Candida albicans</em> (11%), <em>Enterobacter sp</em>. (5%) and <em>Citrobacter sp.</em> (4%). The crude extract of PA had zone of inhibition ranging from 16.7 ± 1.53 mm to 24 ± 1.00 mm while SA crude extract had 14.7 ± 1.53 mm to 27 ± 2.00 mm. PM crude extract had inhibition zones of 17 ± 1.00 mm to 22.3 ± 2.12 mm. The MIC and MBC ranged from 6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction of PM showed the highest percentage yield and had a zone diameter range from 13.5 ± 1.00 mm to 28 ± 1.53 mm with MIC and MBC ranges of 6.25 mg/ml – 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml respectively. Synergism with ciprofloxacin was observed at 25% of the microorganisms, 50% antagonism and 25% additively. Toxicity analysis showed lethal dose concentrations of 19.05 mg/ml, 25.12 mg/ml and 130.11 mg/ml for PM, PA and SA respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the methanol extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study does possess a potent lead molecule in combating microorganisms causing UTI.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Antimicrobial activity, Phyllanthus muellerianus, Phytochemicals, Toxicity, UTI,</p> T. M. Obuotor, A. O. Kolawole, F. O. Adeyanju, S. S. Adewumi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217730 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of sun-drying on the antioxidant potentials of pepper (Capsicum) varieties https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217731 <p>The present study investigated the effects of sun-drying on the antioxidant potential of three pepper varieties: <em>Capsicum annuum var, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum annuum.</em> Fresh fruits of the pepper varieties were collected, washed under distilled water and were divided into two parts: one for fresh sample and the other for the dried sample. Dried and fresh samples of the pepper varieties were homogenized and extracted with methanol. The concentrations of total phenolics and flavonoids were evaluated; DPPH-radical scavenging activity and the FRAP potential of the extracts were also determined. The results revealed that sun-drying process significantly reduced the total phenolic content of <em>C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum</em> from 5.91 ± 0.22 mg/g GAE, 6.9 ± 0.23 mg/g GAE, 6.67 ± 0.99 mg/g GAE to 3.31 ± 0.72 mg/g GAE, 3.59 ± 0.89 mg/g GAE, 3.01 ± 0.17 mg/g GAE respectively and flavonoid content from 3.80 ± 0.02 mg/g QE, 3.91 + 0.08 mg/g QE, 3.84 ± 0.08 mg/g QE to 1.26 ± 0.90 mg/g QE, 1.95 ± 0.07 mg/g QE, 1.23 ± 0.04 mg/g QE respectively. The result also revealed that the fresh samples of<em> C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum</em> exhibited higher percentage inhibition of DPPH-radical at 59.4 ± 0.5%, 61.2 ± 0.6%, 58.9 ± 0.2% respectively and were significantly different from the percentage inhibition by the dried samples: 39.2 ± 0.5%, 42.4 ± 0.4%, 38.6 ± 0.6% respectively.The FRAP potential of the fresh samples of <em>C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum</em>: 588.56 ± 29.4 ìmol Fe(II)/g, 691.34 ± 20.46 ìmol Fe(II)/g and 598.9 ± 23. 82 ìmol Fe(II)/g respectively were significantly different from the dried samples: 370.22 ± 14.75 ìmol Fe(II)/g, 392.34 ± 45.74 ìmol Fe(II)/g and 358.6 ± 30.08 ìmol Fe(II)/g respectively. The three Capsicum species are very rich in antioxidants. However, the sun drying method reduced the antioxidant capacities of the peppers, thus further studies should be carried out on the best method for the preservation of <em>Capsicum</em> species.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>:<em> Capsicum. annuum var, C. chinense, C. annuum, Antioxidant</em>, Sun-drying, methanolic extract</p> A. E. Morakinyo, S. O. Babarinde, G. M. Kalu, S. C. Nzekwe, T. A. Oyedepo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217731 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling and optimization of metals (As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Pb) and Ethylene glycol butyl ether in paints using response surface method https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217735 <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) and principal component analyses (PCA) modelling tools have been used in this study to quantitatively describe the interaction effects of more than one factor on system response for the modelling and optimization of experimental data. In Nigeria, there are no stringent policies in place by the government on paint production and this has led to unregulated paint products by producers in the commercial markets. Water-based paints currently available in Nigerian market were sampled. Experimental data of Metals (As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Pb) and Ethylene glycol butyl ether (Volatile organic compounds (VOC)) measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID), respectively was used to develop a mathematical model. The principal component analyses were explained with a cumulative variance of 82% for the VOC and 76% for metals based on manufacturers. Estimated responses were compared with the experimentally determined responses and prediction capabilities of Response Surface Methodology. In the RSM, the 2 developed model had R value of 0.9569, with optimized value at 0.10 % (1000ppm) of Ethylene glycol butyl ether and concentration (ppm) ranges of As (383.0-1,930.0), Ca (614.0-10,400.0), Cd (98.0-2,000.0), Cr (10.3- 225.0), Cu (133.0-1,840.0), Fe 742.0-2,910.0, Mg (4,000.0-99,510.0), Pb (170.0-3,230.0). The correlation and optimization study employed are applicable for assessing the impact of hazardous air pollutants on indoor air quality and a good applicability in paint industries to produce products within the set limit of international standards. For the purpose of reducing sick building syndrome and protecting public health, it was important to investigate paints and sealers extensively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> VOCs; Paint; metals; Ethylene glycol butyl ether; Response Surface Method</p> A. F. I. Apanpa-Qasim, A. O. Adeyi, Sharvari Deshmukh Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217735 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pedogeochemical survey for uranium mineralization in parts of Igarra Schist belt, Southwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217736 <p>Pedogeochemical survey for uranium mineralization in Dagbala-Atte district, Igarra schist belt, southwestern Nigeria was carried out. The concentrations of As, Au, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, U and V in the residual soils were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses and plotted on geochemical distribution maps to delineate possible U-mineralization areas. Histograms and box plots showed the elements are log-normally distributed with threshold values of 9.47 %, 10.8, 1589, 2.98, 45.6, 31.0, 0.68, 8.59, 122 ppm and 10.6 ppb, respectively for Fe, As, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, U, V and Au. Correlation matrix revealed a strong correlation between U and each of Fe, Mo and Pb indicating close primary association among these four elements. Factor analysis revealed association of U, Mo and Pb implying possible occurrence of U in the granitic rocks of the area. Geochemical maps showed that the strongest U anomaly occurred in the northeastern part of the district that is underlain by granitic gneisses with numerous unmapable granite-pegmatite veins, which possibly are the host of the U mineralization. Copious geological study of these granite-pegmatite veins is recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anomaly, box plots, correlation matrix, geochemical distribution map, uranium mineralization.</p> M. O. Adepoju, C. T. Okonkwo, A. T. Bolarinwa Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijs/article/view/217736 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000